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General observations on the book

THE ACTS.

as a state-prisoner, he might have had an apartment in the common prison; but peculiar favour was showed him; and he was permitted to dwell alone, with the soldier that guarded him, ver. 16. Finding now an opportunity of preaching the Gospel, he hired a house for the purpose, and paid for it, St. Chrysostom observes, by the fruits of his own labour. Here he received all that came unto him, and preached the Gospel with glorious success; so that his bonds became the means of spreading the truth, and he became celebrated even in the palace of Nero, Phil. i. 12, 13. and we find that there were several saints, even in Cesar's household, Phil. iv. 22. which were, no doubt, the fruits of the apostle's ministry. It is said, hat during his two years' residence here, he became acquainted with Seneca the philosopher, between whom and the apostle an epistolary correspondence took place. In an ancient MS. of Seneca's epistles in my own possession, these letters are extant, and are in number fourteen, and have a prologue to them, written by St. Jerom. That they are very ancient cannot be doubted: but learned men have long ago agreed that they are neither worthy of Paul nor of Seneca. While he was in captivity, the church at Philippi, to which he was exceedingly dear, sent him some pecuniary assistance by the hands of their minister Epaphroditus, who, it appears, risked his life in the service of the apostle; and was taken with a dangerous malady. When he got well, he returned to Philippi, and, it is supposed, carried with him that epistle which is still extant; and from it we learn, that Timothy was then at Rome with Paul, and that he had the prospect of being shortly delivered from his captivity. See Phil. i. 12, 13. ii. 25. iv. 15, 16, 18, &c.

death: they say that it was not by the command of Nero that of the Acts of the Apostles he was martyred, but by that of the præfects of the city, Nero being then absent: that he was beheaded at Aqua Salvia, about three miles from Rome, on Feb. 22; that he could not be crucified as Peter was, because he was a freeman of the city of Rome. But there is great uncertainty on these subjects; so that we cannot positively rely on any account that even the ancients have transmitted to us concerning the death of this apostle; and much less on the accounts given by the moderns; and least of all, on those which are to be found in the Martyrologists. Whether Paul ever returned after this to Rome, has not yet been satisfactorily proved. It is proba ble that he did, and suffered death there, as stated above: but still we have no certainty.

Manuscripts: these are the principal.-The Acts of the Apos
There are several subscriptions to this book in different
tles-The Acts of the Holy Apostles-The end of the Acts of the
Holy Apostles, written by Luke the evangelist, and fellow-
traveller of the illustrious apostle Paul-By the holy apostle
and evangelist Luke, &c. &c.

The Versions are not less various in their subscriptions.
The end of the Acts, that is, the History of the Holy Apos

[graphic]

With all confidence] Пappnoias, liberty of speech; perfect freedom to say all he pleased, and when he pleased. He had the fullest toleration from the Roman government to preach as he pleased, and what he pleased; and the unbelieving Jews had no power to prevent him.

It is supposed, that it was during this residence at Rome that he converted Onesimus, and sent him back to his master Philemon, with the epistle which is still extant. And it is from ver. 23. and 24. of that epistle, that we learn that Paul had then with him Epaphras, Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke.

Here St. Luke's account of Paul's travels and sufferings end: and, it is probable, that this history was written soon after the end of the two years mentioned in ver. 30.

That the apostle visited many places after this, suffered much in the great cause of Christianity, and preached the Gospel of Jesus with amazing success, are generally believed. How he came to be liberated we are not told; but it is likely that, having been kept in this sort of confinement for about two years, and none appearing against him, he was released by the imperial order.

Concerning the time, place, and manner of his death, we have little certainty. It is commonly believed that, when a general persecution was raised against the Christians by Nero, about A. D. 64, under pretence that they had set Rome on fire, that both St. Paul and St. Peter then sealed the truth with their blood; the latter being crucified with his head down ward; the former being beheaded either in A. D. 64 or 65, and was buried in the Via Ostia. EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccles. lib. ii. cap. 25. intimates that the tombs of these two apostles, with their inscriptions, were extant in his time; and quotes, as his authority, a holy man of the name of Caius, who wrote against the sect of the Cataphrygians, who has asserted this, as from his personal knowledge. See Eusebius, by Reading, vol. i. p. 83; and see Dr. Lardner, in his life of this apostle, who examines this account with his usual perspicuity and candour. Other writers have been more particular concerning his 448

exactly agreeable to all the accounts which remain of the best ancient historians, among the Jews and heathens, that no per"Even the incidental things mentioned by St. Luke are so son who had forged such a history, in later ages, could have self by alluding to some customs or opinions, since sprung up; had that external confirmation; but would have betrayed himor by misrepresenting some circumstance, or using some therefore, in later ages, cannot be allowed; and, for a man to have published a history of such things so early as St. Luke phrase or expression not then in use. The plea of forgery, wrote, (that is, while some of the apostles, and many other persons were alive, who were concerned in the transactions which he has recorded,) if his account had not been punctually true, could have been only to have exposed himself to an easy confutation and certain infamy.

consistent and uniform, the incidental things agreeable to the best ancient historians which have come down to us, and the As, therefore, the Acts of the Apostles are, in themselves, main facts supported and confirmed by the other books of the New Testament, and by the unanimous testimony of so many of the ancient fathers, we may, I think, very fairly, and with great justness, conclude, that, if any history of former times deserves credit, the Acts of the Apostles ought to be received and credited; and, if the history of the Acts of the Apostles be true, Christianity cannot be false: for a doctrine, so good in itself, and attended with so many miraculous and Divine testimonies, has all the possible marks of a true revelation." at the end of chap. ix. where the subject is particularly conOn St. PAUL'S character and conduct, see the observations sidered.

The Book of the ACTS is not only a History of the Church,

Concluding observations

CHAPTER XXVIII.

on the Evangelical History

the most ancient and most impartial, as it is the most au a small treatise concerning matters of speculation, with the thentic extant; but it is also a history of God's Grace and characters of a more early age than that in which he writes; Providence. The manner in which he has exerted himself it is next to impossible that such a work, of considerable in favour of Christianity, and of the persons who were origi-length, consisting of several pieces, with a great variety of nally employed to disseminate its doctrines, show us the high-historical facts, representations of characters, principles, and est marks of the Divine approbation. Had not that cause been customs of several nations, and distant countries, of persons, of God, could he have so signally interposed in its behalf of ranks and degrees, of many interests and parties, should would he have wrought such a series of miracles for its pro- be performed by eight several persons, the most of them unpagation and support? And would all its genuine professors learned, without any appearance of concert. have submitted to sustain the loss of all things, had not his own Spirit, by its consolations in their hearts, given them to feel that his favour was better than life?

That the hardships suffered by the primitive apostles and Christians were great, the facts theirselves related in this book, sufficiently declare that their consolation and happiness were abundant, the cheerful manner in which they inet and sustained those hardships, deinoustrates. Ile who cordially embraced Christianity, found himself no loser by it; if he lost earthly good in consequence, it was infinitely over balanced by the spiritual good which he received. Paul uimself, who suffered most, had this compensated by a superabounding happiness. Wherever the gospel comes, it finds nothing but darkness, sin, and misery; and wherever it is received, it cominunicates light, holiness, and felicity. Reader, magnify thy God and Saviour, who hath called thee to such a state of salvation. Should thou neglect it, how grievous must thy punishment be! Not only receive its doctrines as a sys. tem of wisdom and goodness; but receive them as motives of conduct; and as a rule of life: and show thy conscientious belief of them, by holding the truth in righteousness; and thus adorn these doctrines of God thy Saviour, in all things.remarkable and extraordinary events, which had happened Amen.

I have often with pleasure, and with great advantage to my subject, quoted Dr. Lardner, whose elaborate works in de. fence of Divine Revelation are really beyond all praise. The conclusion of his Credibility of the Gospel History is pecularly appropriate; and the introduction of it here can need no apology. I hope, with him, I may also say,

"I might perhaps call this argument a demonstration, if that term had not been often misapplied by men of warm imaginations; and been bestowed upon reasonings that have but a small degree of probability. But though it should not be a strict demonstration that these writings are genuine; or though it be not absolutely impossible, in the nature of the thing, that the books of the New Testament should have been composed in a later age than that to which they are assigned, and of which they have innumerable characters; yet, I think, it is in the highest degreee improbable, and altogether incredible. "If the books of the New Testament were written by per sons who lived before the destruction of Jerusalem, that is, if they were written at the time in which they are said to have been written, the things related in them are true. If they had not been matter of fact, they would not have been credited by any persons near that time, and in those parts of the world in which they are said to have been done, but would have been treated as the most notorious lies and falsehoods. Suppose three or four books should now appear amongst us, in the language most generally understood, giving an account of many in some kingdom of Europe, and in the most noted cities of the countries next adjoining to it; some of them said to have happened between sixty and seventy years ago, others between twenty and thirty, others nearer our own time; would they not be looked upon as the most manifest and ridiculous forgeries and impostures that ever were contrived? Would great numbers of persons, in those very places, change their religious principles and practices upon the credit of things reported to be publicly done, which no man had ever heard of before? Or, rather, is it possible that such a design as this would be conceived by any sober and serious persons, or even the most wild and extravagant? If the history of the New things that were related to have been done by Jesus, and by his followers, by virtue of powers derived from him, do not prove a person to come from God, and that his doctrine is true and divine, nothing can. And as Jesus does here, in the cir cunstances of his birth, life, sufferings, and after exaltation, Any one may be sensible, how hard it is for the most and in the success of his doctrine, auswer the description of learned, acute, and cautious man, to write a book in the cha-the great Person promised and foretold in the Old Testament, racter of some person of an earlier age; and not betray his he is at the same time showed to be the Messiah. owa time by some mistake about the affairs of the age in "From the agreement of the writers of the New Testament which he pretends to place himself; or by allusions to cus- with other ancient writers, we are not only assured that these toms or principles since sprung up; or by some phrase or ex-books are genuine, but also that they are come down to us pression not then in use. It is no easy thing to escape all these dangers in the smallest performance, though it be a treatise of theory or speculation: these hazards are greatly in creased when the work is of any length; and especially if it be historical, and be concerned with characters and customs. "There has been in all ages a wicked propensity in manIt is yet more difficult to carry on such a design in a work kind, to advance their own notions and fancies by deceits and consisting of several pieces, written to all appearance by seve. forgeries: they have been practised by heathens, Jews, and ral persons. Many indeed are desirous to deceive, but all Christians, in support of imaginary historical facts, religious hate to be deceived; and therefore, though attempts have been schemes and practices, and political interests. With these made to impose upon the world in this way, they have never, views some whole books have been forged; and passages inor very rarely, succeeded; but have been detected and expos.serted into others of undoubted authority. Many of the Chris ed by the skill and vigilance of those who have been concern- tian writers of the second and third centuries, and of the foled for the truth. lowing ages, appear to have had false notions concerning the state of Judea between the nativity of Jesus and the destruc. tion of Jerusalem; and concerning many other things occa sionally mentioned in the New Testament. The consent of the best ancient writers with those of the New Testament, is a proof that these books are still untouched; and that they have not been new modelled and altered by Christians of later times, in conformity to their own peculiar sentiments.

"I have now performed what I undertook, and have shown, that the account given by the sacred writers of persons and things, is confirmed by other ancient authors of the best note. There is nothing in the books of the New Testament unsuitable to the age in which they are supposed to have been written. There appears in these writers a knowledge of the af-Testament be credible, the Christian religion is true. If the fairs of those times, not to be found in authors of later ages. We are hereby assured that the books of the New Testament are genuine, and that they were written by persons, who lived at or near the time of those events, of which they have given the history.

"The volume of the New Testament consists of several pieces; these are ascribed to eight several persons; and there are the strongest appearances, that they were not all written by any one hand, but by as many persons as they are ascribed t. There are lesser differences in the relations of some facts, and such seeming contradictions, as would never have hap pened, if these books had been all the work of one person, or of several who wrote in concert. There are as many pecu harities of temper and style, as there are names of writers, divers of which show no depth of genius nor compass of knowledge. Here are representations of titles, posts, behaviour of persons of higher and lower rank, in many parts of the world; persons are introduced, and their characters are set in a full light; here is a history of things done in several eities and countries; and there are allusions to a vast variety of customs and tenets of persons of several nations, sects, and religions. The whole is written without affectation, with the greatest simplicity and plainness; and is confirmed by other ancient writers of unquestionable authority. If it be difficult for a person of learning and experience, to compose VOL, V. 3 L

39*

pure and uncorrupted, without any considerable interpolations or alterations. If such had been made in them, there would have appeared some smaller differences at least between them and other ancient writings.

"This may be reckoned an argument, that the generality
of Christians have had a very high veneration for these
books; or else, that the several sects among them have had
an eye upon each other, that no alterations might be made in
those writings to which they have all appealed. It is also an
argument, that the Divine Providence has all along watched
over and guarded these best of books (a very fit object of es-
pecial care) which contain the best of principles, were appa-
rently written with the best views, and have in them inimi-
table characters of truth and simplicity."
See Dr. Lardner's WORKS, Vol. I. p. 419

Let him answer these arguments, who can.
449

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES

TO THE BOOKS OF

THE NEW TESTAMENT.

N. B. The Chronological Notes at the commencement of the different books of the New Testament, as printed in former editions, wil be all found here, rendering this part complete, on a plan more convenient to the reader.-Am. Pub.1

calendar of Numa Pompilius, the second Reman king, by Jullus Cesar; and the change was made forty-five years before the birth of Christ.

The Chronology of the New Testament be the Julian Period: whence it follows, that to its foundation the reformation of the Roman tng, in some sort, completed in the Book of find any year of our Lord in this period, 4713 the Acts, I have judged it necessary to lay years must be added to that year: e. g. to before the realer, a series of Tables, which find the year of this period, answering to the might enable him to judge more readily of present year of our Lord, 1812, add 4713, and the facts laid down in the Evangelical and you will have 6525, which is the year of the Apostolic Histories; and of such transactions, Julian period sought. of the different Heathen Governments, as took place during the period through which these tables extend; and which had less or more influence on the infant cause of Christianity.

6. The Era of the Seleucide, or since Seleucus, one of the generals of Alexander, took Babylon, and ascended the Asiatic throne, called sometimes the Grecian era, and the era of Principalities in reference to the division of Alexander's empire, sometimes improperly called the era of Alexander, commenced 12 years after the death of Alexander the Great, 312 before the Incarnation, according to the vulgar reckoning, and was properly the first year of the Syro-Macedonian empire.

17. Eusebian epocha of the creation, was that used in the Chronicon of Eusebius and the Roman Martyrology.

19. Era of Iphitus, who re-established the Olympic games, 338 years after their institu tion by Hercules, or about 884 years before the commencement of the Christian era.

19. Epoch of Nabonassar, king of Babylon, after the division of the Assyrian monarchy or that used by Hipparchus, by Ptolemy in his astronomical observations, by Censorinus, and others. The years of this era constantly contained 365 days, so that 146 Julian were equal to 1461 Nabonassarean years. This epoch commenced on the fourth of the ca lends of March, (Feb. 26.) B. C. 747.

20. Year of the world according to Bedford and Kennedy, will be found by adding four years to the Ussherian era.

For the year of the Minor Jewish era; of the Greater Rabbinical era; of the Call Yuga, or Indian era of the deluge, see tables; and for the year since the defeat of Pompey by Julius Cesar at Pharsalia, see under chrono logical dates of the New Testament, 2 Carin thians.

TABLE 1.-Contains all the important pochs which have been used by the different civilized nations of the earth; extending from the sixth year before the nativity of our Lord, according to the Vulgar Era, to A. D. 100; in which, 1st. The reigns of the Roman empe rors are included, together with the Fasti Consulares, or years and names of the Ro- 7. By the year before the Vulgar Era of man Consuls, which are indispensably ne- Christ, is meant, that correct chronological cessary to ascertain the dates of several reming which showed that the vulgar or transactions in the Roman, Jewish, and common reckoning of the A D. or year of our Christian history. -2. The Governors of the Lord, is deficient not less than four years: so Jews under the Romans.-3. The Kings of that the present year 1812 should be, accordthe Parthians. -4. The Governors of Syria.-ing to strict chronological precision, 1816. 5. And the Jewish High-Priests: and to make The mode of computing by Olympiads, this complete, I have added, 1. The Epact-derived its origin from the institution of the 2. Easter Term-3. Jewish Pass-over-4. Do Olympic Games, which were celebrated every minical Letters-5. Years of the Solar Cycle-four years, for five successive days, at the 6. Ditto of the Jewish Cycle-7. Golden Num-time of the first full moon, after the summer's ber-8. The years of the Dionysian period. solstice. They were held on the banks of the 21. The Cycles introduced, require little exTABLE I-Contains a chronological arriver Alpheus, near Olympia, a city of Elis,planation. The Solar Cycle is a revolution rangement of important events, during the from which they derived their name. The consisting of 28 years; the Lunar Cycle of period of the above 106 years: in which every first Olympiad commenced 776 before the In- 19; and the Paschal Cycle, or Dionysian Pe occurrence of moment, whether among the carnation of our Lord, and 23 years before riol, is compounded of both, thus: the Solar Jews, Christians, or Romans, is faithfully the building of Rome. And computations of Cycle of 28, and the Lunar of 19, multiplied noted: the whole calculated to throw light time by it ceased about A. D. 440. It need by each other, produce 532, which constitutes on the connected history of those times and scarcely be added, that each Olympiad consists a third Cycle, called the Paschal Cycle, be nations. of four years; hence the first, second, third, cause in that period the Christian Pass-over, or fourth year of any particular Olympiad or Easter, a moveable Feast, has gone through Year of the building of Rome is an import all possible variations, and the Solar and ant era among the Roman historians it com Lunar Cycles, Dominical Letters, Paschel 1. By the Ussherian year of the world, the menced 753 years before the birth of Christ term, Epacts, Nevn Moons, &c. &e all rereader is to understand the chronological [The following authorities show the princi- commence exactly as they had done 539 years computation of Archbishop Ussher; who suppal computations of Chronologers as exhibited before. Other eras might have been noticed, posed that 4000 years, exactly, had elapsed in the tables.] but those mentioned above were judged to from the creation of the world till the birth 9. Years from the building of Rome, ac be the most important. These, with the com of Christ. This era is used in the text of this cording to Fabius Pictor, who flourished mon golden number, or Grecian or Metonic work and in the English bibles. The differ about 25 years before Christ, and who is cycle, and the Jewish golden number, or ence of 60 years between the year of the styled by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, an Rabbinical cycle, will be all found in the world, as fixed by Scaliger and Ussher, arises accurate writer. This epoch is used by Dio-tables. from the former chronologer placing the dorus Siculus. birth of Abraham in the 70th, and the latter 10. Years from the building of Rome acin the 130th year of the life of his father Te-cording to Cato and the Fasti Consulares, rah. For Scaliger's computation, see on Gen. and adopted by Salinus, Eusebius, Dionysius xi. 26. and for Ussher's computation, see on of Halicarnassus, &c. Gen. xi. 26. and xi. 32. conferred with Acts 11. Years from the building of Rome, acvil. 4. For the year since the deluge accord-cording to Varro, which was that adopted by Ussherian year of the world 4000-Alexan ing to this era, subtract 1656 years from the the Roman emperors in their proclamations:drian era 5498-Antiochian era 5488-Conyear of the world. by Plutarch, Tacitus, Dio Cassius,Gellius,Cen-stantinopolitan era 5504-Jullan Period 4709 sorinus, Onuphrius, Baronius, and by most Era of the Seleucida 308-Before vulgar era of modern chronologers. Livy, Pliny, Cicero, Christ 5-CXCIII. Olympiad 4--Year of the and Velleius Paterculus, fluctuate between the Varronian and Catonian computations. 12 Year from the building of Rome, according to Polybius, the historian. See year of Rome, according to Frontinus, in the Tables.

It may be necessary to say a few words in explanation of the different Eras introduced in this work.

2. The Alexandrian Era of the world, or ecclesiastical epoch of the Greeks, is that chronological computation which was used by the people of Alexandria; who began their reckoning 5502 before the vulgar year of Christ 1.

3. The Antiochian Era, is a correction of the preceding, in the 4th century, by Pando rus, an Egyptian monk, and used by the people of Antioch; it differs only from the Alex andrian by subtracting ten years.

4. The Constantinopolitan Era of the world, or that used by the emperors of the East in their diplomata, &c. and thence also called the "civil era of the Greeks," is that still in use in the Greek Church, which reckons 5508 before the year 2. of the Incarnation, according to the vulgar era.

CHRONOLOGICAL DATES OF THE NEW TES
TAMENT.
ST. MATTHEW.

building of Rome 749-Year of emperor Au gustus, i.e. from the battle of Actium 26-Con suls, Augustus XII. and Lucius Cornelius Sulla-Paschal Cycle or Dionysian Period 530-Solar Cycle 5-Lunar Cycle 13-Deni nical Letters BA.

ST. MARK.

Ussherian year 4030-Alexandrian era 5529
-Antiochian era 5518, for other eras add 0

years to the date of St. Matthew, and for the
Cycles, Epacts, Roman Emperors, Consuls,

ST. LUKE

13. The Actian Era, or year of Augustus, or from the Battle of Actium, is the computation of time from the commencement of the Roman Empire, which took place after the Battle of Actium, 27 years before our Lord: from, this time Augustus became sole governor. see annexed Tables. 14. The Cesarean Era of Antioch: was a monument which the city of Antioch erected to the honour of Julius Cesar, in commemo- Ussherian year 3999-Alexandrian era 5497 ration of his victory at Pharsalia. This was-Antiochian era 5437-Constantinopolitan 5. The Julian Period is a factitious era, obtained forty-eight years before the com-era 5503-Rabbinical year 3754, &c. conceived by Joseph Scaliger, to facilitate the mencement of the Christian Era. reduction of the years of any given epoch to ST. JOHN. 15. The Spanish Era. This was kept in that of another. This period is the result of commemoration of the entire subduction of Ussherian years 3999-4033-Alexandrian the Lunar and Solar Cycles, and the Indic Spain, by Augustus Cesar, which took place eras 5497-5531-Antiochian eras 5487-5621-tions, multiplied by each other. Thus: mul in the year of Rome 715; or thirty-nine years Constantinopolitan era 5505-5537. tiply 19, the Lunar Cycle, by 28, the Solar before the Vulgar, Era of Christ. This epoch N. B. As it was impossible to ascertain the Cycle, and the product will be 532; multiply continuel in use among the Spaniards till precise dates of several transactions recorded this sum by 15, the Cycle of the Indictions, A. D. 1383, and among the Portuguese till in this Gospel, I have constructed the above and you will have 7980 years, which consti- about A. D. 1492. Chronology in all the Eras which it includes, tute the Julian Periol. The first year of the 16. The Julian Era, or, as it is sometimes so as to comprehend the whole of our Lord's Vulgar era, is placed in the 4714th year of called, the Tr of Julius Cesar; this had for life on earth, from his conception to his as

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1. TIMOTHY.

Roman Consuls.

-Antiochian era 5577-Constantinopolitan era tle is very uncertain. The above is only upon 5593-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 85. It should be observed, that the date of this episthe supposition that it was written about A. D. 85. See Preface.

III. JOHN.

Ussherian year 4089-Alexandrian era 5587
-Antiochian era 5577-Constantinopolitan era
5593-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 85.
JUDE.

Ussherian year 4069-Alexandrian era 5667 Antiochian era 5557-Constantinopolitan era Ussherian year 4069-Alexandrían era 5567 5673-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity64 or 65, &c. Dr. Lardner and others suppose this epistle to-Antiochian era 5557--Constantinopolitan era have been written in A. D. 56; i. e. nine years 5573-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 65, &c. earlier than is stated above. See preface to REVELATION. the epistle, where this point is largely considered.

II. TIMOTHY.

Ussherian year 4060-Alexandrian era 5558 -Antiochian era 5548-Year since the deluge, according to Archbishop Ussher and the English Bible 2404-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 56, &c.-Year of the reign of Corbred I. Ussherian year 4069-Alexandrian era 5567 King of the Srots, brother to the celebrated Ca--Antiochian era 5557-Constantinopolitan era ractacus, who was carried prisoner to Rome, 5573-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 65 or 66,&c. but afterward released by the emperor, 2,&c.

IL CORINTHIANS.

TITUS.

Ussherian year 4069-Alexandrian era 5567 5573-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 65 or -Antiochian era 5557-Constantinopolitan era

66, &c.

PHILEMON.

Ussherian year 4100-Alexandrian era 5598 -Antiochian era 5588-Constantinopolitan era 5604-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 96.

Chronological Arrangement of the Books of the New Testament; the places where written, according to Dr. Lardner; and the enumeration of all the Books, Chapters, and Verses.

Ussherian year 4061-Alexandrian era, ep0,5559-Antiochian era, cou0' 5549-Constantinopolitan era, røfé, 5565-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 57-Eusebian epoch of the creation, doré, 4285-Year since the deluge, ac- Ussherian year 4066-Alexandrian era 5564 ⚫cording to archbishop Ussher, and the English-Antiochian era 5554-Constantinopolitan era Bible, 2405-Year from the building of Rome, 5570-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 62, &c. according to Polybius, the historian, 808--Year since the defeat of Pompey, by Julius Cæsar, Ussherian year 4067-Alexandrian era 5565 | Acts at Pharsalia, called by Catrou and Rouille the commencement of the Roman empire, 105-Autiochian era 5553-Constantinopolitan era Romans. 5571-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 63, &c.

Jewish golden number, or year of the Rabbinical cycle of nineteen years, 17, or the sixth embolismic-Year of the reign of Corbred L, 3, &c. &c.

GALATIANS.

Ussherian year 4056-Alexandrian era 5554 -Antiochian era 5544-Constantinopolitan era 5560-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 52. EPHESIANS.

Ussherian year 4065-Alexandrian era 5563— Antiochian era 5553-Constantinopolitan era 5569 -Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 61. PHILIPPIANS.

Ussherian year 4066-Alexandrian era 5564 -Antiochian era 5554-Constantinopolitan era 5570-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 62, &c. COLOSSIANS.

Ussherian year 4066-Alexandrian era 5564 -Antiochian era 5554-Constantinopolitan era $570--Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 62, &c.

HEBREWS.

JAMES.

Ussherian year 4065-Alexandrian era 5563
-Antiochian era 5553-Constantinopolitan era
5569-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 61, &c.
I. PETER.

Ussherian year 4064-Alexandrian era 5562
-Antiochian era 5552-Constantinopolitan era
5568-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 60, &c.
II. PETER.

Ussherlan year 4064-Alexandrian era 5562
-Antiochianera 5552-Constantinopolitan era
5568-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 60, &c.
I. JOHN.

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Ussherian year 4073-Alexandrian era 5571 -Antiochiau era 5561-Constantinopolitan era 1. John 5577-Vulgar era of Christ's nativity 69.

II. JOHN.

Ussherian year 4089-Alexandrian era 5587 Apocalypse 22 406 Patmos or Eph. 95 or 96

ROMAN CONSULS.

List of the Years in which the Consuls in the following tables were either changed, before the end of their term, or died while in office; together with the names of the Consuls who succeeded.

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16. Serv. Corn. Lent. Maluginensis, July 1.

11. L. Cass. Longinus, July 1.

12 L Visellius Varro, July 1.

16. P. Pomponius Græcinus, July 1.

18. L. Leius Tubero and C. Rubellius Blandus.

22. M. Cocc. Nerva and C. Vibius Rufinus.

Q. Jun. Blæsus succeeded to Pollio, July 1.

es. Q. Marcius Barea and T. Rustius Nummus Gallus, July 1.

29. Aulus Plautins and L. Nonius Asprenas, July 1. 90. C. Cassius Longinus and L. Nævius Surdinus, July 1. 31. Faust. Corn. Sylla and Sex. Tidius or Sextidius Catull. May 9; L. Fulcinius Trio, July 1; Pub. Memmius Regulus, October 1. 32 A. Vitellius succeeded to M. Furius Camillus Scribonianus, July 1.

33. L. Salvius Otho succeeded to Galba, July 1.

37. C. Caligula Imp. and Tiber. Claudius, July 1.

39. M. Tranquinius succeeded to Caius, Feb. 1; Cn. Domitius Corbulo, July 1; Domitianus Africanus, or Áfer. August 11. 41. Q. Pomponius Secundus succeeded Caius, January 7. 14. Manius Emilius Lepidus succeeded Crispinus II. 46. Velleius Rufus and Ostorlus Scapula.

A. D.

48. L. Vitellius, July 1.

49. L. Memmius Pollio and Q. Allius Maximus, May 1.

51. C. Minutius Fundanus and C. Vettennius Severus, July 1, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Nov. 1.

62. L. Annæus Seneca and Trebellius Maximus, July 1.
65. Anicius Cerealis succeeded Vestinius, July 1.

69. Salvius Otho Aug. and L. Salv. Otho Titianus, Jan. 15; L. Verginius Rufus and Vopiscus Pompeius Silvanus, March 1; Titus Arrius Antoninus and O. Marius Celsus II. May 1, C. Fabius Valens and Aulus Allenus Cæcina, Sept. 1; Rocius Regulus succeeded Cacina Oct. 31; Cn. Cæcilius Simplex and C. Quintius Atticus, Nov. 1.

70. M. Licinius Mutianus and Publius Valerius Asiaticus, July 1; L. Annius Bassus and C. Cæcina Pætus, Nov. 1.

71. Flav. Donntianus Cesar I. and Cn. Pædius Castus, March 1. 74. Domitianus Cesar III. succeeded Titus, July 1.

75. Domitianus Cesar IV. and M. Licinius Mutianus III. July 1.

76. Domitianus Cesar V. and T. Plautius Silvanus II. July 1.

77. Domitianus Cesar VI. and Cn. Jul. Agricola, July 1.

79. M. Titius Frugi and Vitius Vinius or Vinidianus Julianus

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N. B. The Roman numerals in the era of the Olympiads, in the following tables, do not mean that the respective Olymplads were com pleted in the years of the different epochs with which they are collateral, or in other words, that so many times four years had then elapsed since the institution of the Olympic games; but they serve to point out the years in which the respective Olympiads commenced. The asterisks in the column containing the golden number, or Grecian cycle of nineteen years, and also in that of the Jewish lunar cycle, denote that the year of the respective cycles to which they are prefixed, are embolismic, or leap years, i. e. contain thirteen instead of twelve months.

The reader will note that the dates of the different eras, &c. are designed to correspond by reading across both pages: the column containing the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, agreeing in chronology with all other dates in this table.

451

Table of remarkable Eras,

TABLE 1.

and Roman Consula

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ROMAN CONSULS.

307| 43 40 33 26 P. Lælius Balbus, and C. Antistius Vetus 749 308 44 3415L C. J. Cesar Octav. Aug. XII., and L. C. Sulla 750 309 45 42 35. 4 C. Calvisius Sabinus, and L. Passienus Rufus 751 310 46 43 362 3 L. Corn. Lentulus, and M. Valerius Messalinus 752 311 47 44 37 3 21. C. J. Cesar Octav. Aug. XIII., and C. C. Gallus 4 1C. Cornelius Lentulus, and L. Calpurnius Piso 51 Caius Julius Cesar, and M. Æmilius Paulus 62 P. Vinicius, and P. Alfenius Varus 73 L. Elius Lamia, and M. Servilius

2543 3755 4223 4354 5503 5497 5487 4705 3999 935 CXCIII. 3748 2344 3756 4224 4255 5504 5499 5488 4706 4000 936 4 2345 3757 4225 4356 5505 5499 5489 4707 4001 937 CXCIV. 2346 3758 4226 4357 5506 5500 5490 4708 4002 938 2347 3759 4227 4858 5507 5501 5491 4709,4003 2348 3760 4228 4359 5508 5502 5492 4710, 4004 2349 3761 4229 4360 5509 5503 5493 4711 4005 2350 3762 4230 4361 5510 5504 5494 4719 4006 2351 3763 4231 4362 5511 5505 5495 4713 4007) 2352 3764 4232 4363 5512 5506 5496 4714 40082353 3765 4233 4364 5513 5507 5497 4715 4009 2354 3766 4234 4365 5514 5508549814716 4010 2355 3767 4235 4366 5515 5509 5499 4717 4011 2356 3768 4236 4367 5516 5510 5500 4718 4012 2357 3769 4237 1368 5517 5511 5501 4719 4013 2358 3770 42381369 5518 5512 5502 4720 4014 2359 3771 4239 4370 5519 5513 5503 4721 4015 2360 3772 4240 4371 5520 5514 5504 4722 4016 2361 3773 4241 4372 5521 5515 5505 4723 4017 2362 3774 42424373 5522 5516 550614724 4018 2363 3775 4243 4374 5523 5517 5507 4725 4019 2364 3776 4244 4376 5524 5518 5508 4726 4020 2365 3777 4245 4376 5525 5519 5509 4727 4021 2366 3778 4246 1377 5526 5520 5510 4728 4022 2367 3779 4247 1378 5527 5521 5511 47294023 2368 3780 4248 1379 5528 5522 5512 4730 4021 2369 3781 4249 4380 5529 5523 5513 4731 4025 2370 3782 1250 4381 5530 5524 5514 4732 4026 2371 3783 4251 4382 5531 5525 5515 4733 4027 2372 3734 4252 4383 5532 5526 5516 4734 4028 2373 3785 4253 4384 5533 5527 5517 4735 4029 2374 3786 4254 4385 5534 5528 5518 4736 4030 2375 3737 4255 4386 5535 5529 5519 4737 4031 967 2376 3788 4256 4387 5536 5530 5520 4738 4032 2377 3789 4257 4388 5537 5551 5521 47394033 2378 3790 4258 4389 5538 5532 5522 4740 4034 2379 3791 4259 1390 5539 5533 5523 4741 4035 2380 3792 4260 1391 5540 5534 5524 4742 4036 2381 3793 4261 1392 5541 5535 5525 4743 1037 2382 3794 4262 1393 5542 5536 5526 1744 4039 974 2383 3795 4263 1 91 5513 5537 5527 4745 4039 975 2384 3796 4261 4395 5544 5538 5528 4746 4040 2385 3797 4265 4.96 5545 5539 5529 4747 4041 2386 3798 4266 4397 5546 5540 5530 4748 4042 2387 3799 4267 4398 5547 5541 5531 4749 4043) 2388 3800 4268 4399 5548 5542 5532 4750 4044 980 2389 3801 4269 4400 5549 5543 5533 4751 4045 981 2390 3802 4270 1401 5550 5544 5534 4752 4046 992| 2391 3803 4271 1402 5551 5545 5535 4753 4047 983 2392 3804 4272|1403|5552 5546 5536 4754 4048 984 9393 205 1273|1045553 5547 3537 175, 4049| 95| CEVL 2391 38064274 1405 5554 5549 5538 4756 4050| 986 2395 3807 4275 4406 55555549 5539 4757 4051 2396 3508 4276 41407 5556 5550 5540 4758 4052 2397 3809 4277 1408 5557 5551 5541 4759 4053 2398 3810 4278 1109 5558 5552 5542 4760 4054 2399 3811 4279 4410 5559 5553 5543 4761|4055 2400 3812 4280 4411 5560 5554 5544 4762 4056 2401 3813 42814412 5561 5555 5545 4763 4057) 2402 3814 4282 4413 5562 5556 5546 4764 4058 2403 3815 4283 1414 5563 5557 5547 4765 4059 995 2101 3816 4284 4415,5564 53558 5549 4766 40601 996 2405 3817 4285 1416 5555 5559 5549 4767 4061 997 2406 3818 4296 4417 5566 5560 5550 4768 4062 999 2407 3819 4287 4418 5567 5561 5551 4769 4063 999 2408 3820 4288 1419 5568 5562 5552 4770 4064 1000 2409 3821 42894420 5569 5563 5553 4771 4065 1001 2410 3822 4290 1421 5570 5564 5554 4772 4066 1002 2411 3823 4291 4122 5571 5565 5555 4773 40671003 2412 3824 4292|4423 5572 5566 5556 4774 4068 1004 2413 3825 4293 4424 5573 5567 5557 4775 4069 1005) CCXL. 2114 3826 4294 4425 5574 5568 5558 4776 4070 1006| 2415 3827 4295 4426 5575 5569 5559 4777 4071 1007 2416 3828 4296 4427 5576 5570 5560 4778 4072 1008 2417 3829 4297 4428 5577 5571 5561 4779 4073 1009 2418 3830 4298 4429 5578 5572 5562 4780 4074 |1010] 2419 3831 4299 4430 5579 5573 5563 4781 4075 1011 2420 3832 4300 4431 5580 5574 5564 4782 4076 1012 2421 3833 4301 4432 5581 5575 5565 4783 4077 1013 2422 3834 4302 4433 5582 5576 5566 47844078 1014) 2423 835 4303 4434 5593 5577 5567 4785 4079 1015 2424 3836 4304 1435 5584 5578 5568 1786 4080 1015 2425 3837 4305 4436 5585 5579 5569 4787 4081 1017 CCXIV. 2426 3838 4306 1437 5586 5580 5570 4788 4082 1018. 2427 3839 4307 4138 5587 5581 5571 4789 4083 1019 2428 3840 4308 4439 5588 5582 5572 4790 4084|1020 2429 3841 4309 4440 5589 5583 5573 4791 4085 1021 CCXV. 2430 3842 4310 4441 5590 55845574 4792 4086 1022 2431 3843 4311 4442 5591 5585 575 4793 4087 1023 3432 3844 4312 4143 5592 5586 5576 4794 4088 1024 2433 3845 4313 4444 5593 5587 5577 4795 4089 1025 2434 3846 4314 4445 5594 5588 5578 4796 4090 1026 2435 3847 4315 4446 5595 5589 5579 4797 4091 1027 2436 3848 4316 4447 5596 5590 5580 4798 40921028 2437 3849 4317 1448 5597 5591 5581 4799 4093 1029 CCXVII 2438 3850 43184449 5598 5592 5582 4800 4094 1030 2439 3851 4319 1450 5599 5593 55834801 4095 1031 2440 3852 4320 4451 5600 5594 5584 4802 4096 1032 2441 3853 4321 4452 5601 5595 5585 4803 4097 1033 CCXVIII 2442 3854 43221453 5602 5596 5586 4804 4098 1034 2443 3855 4323 4454 5603 5597 5587 4805 4099 1035 2444 3856 4324 4455 5604 5598 5588 4806 4100 1036| 2445 3857 4325 44565605 5599 5589 4807 4101 1037 2446 3858 4326 4457 5606 5600 5590 4808 4102 1038 2447 3859 4327 1458 5607 5601 5591 4809 4103 1039 2448 38604328/44595608 5602 5592/4810|4104|1040|

4 Sex. Elius Catus, and C. Sentius Saturninus
5 L. V. Messala Volusus, and C. C. Cha Magnus
6 M. Æmilius Lepidus, and L. Arruntius

7A. L. N. Siltanus, and Q. C. M. Criticus Silanus
8 M. Furius Camillus, and S. Nonius Quintilianus
9 Q. Sulpicius Camerinus, and C. P. Sabinus
10 P. Cornelius Dolabella, and C. Junius Silanus
11 M. Æmilius Lepidus, and T. Statilius Taurus
12 Germanicus Cesar, and C. Fonteius Capito

15 Drusus Cesar, and C. Norbanus Flaccus

16 T. Stat. Sisenna Taurus, and L. Scribonius Libe
17 C. Cæcilius Rufus, and L. P. Flaccus Græcimas
18 Tiberius Aug. III, and Germanicus Cesar II.
19 M. Junius Silanus, and L. Norbanus Balbus
20 M. Valerius Messala, and M. Aurelius Cotta II.
21 Tiberius Aug. IV., and Drusus Cesar IL

42 Tib. Claudius Aug. II., and Caius Cæcina Largus 47 43 Tib. Claudius Aug. III., and L. Vitellius IL 48 44 L. Quinctius Crispinus II., and M. S. Taurus 49 45 M. Vinicius II., and Taurus Statilius Corvinus 50 46 P. Valerius Asiaticus II., and M. Junius Silanus 47 Tib. Claud. Aug. IV., and L. Vitellius III

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22 C. Sulpitius Galba, and Q. Haterius Agrippa 23 C. Asinius Pollio, and L. Antistius Vetus

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24 Serv. Cornelius Cethegus, and L. Viselius Varro 25 M. Asinius Agrippa, and C. Cornelius Lentulus 26 C. C. Sabinus, and Cn. Corn. Lentulus Getulicus 27 M. L. Crassus Fragi, and L. Calpurnius Piso

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85 Domitianus Aug. XL, and T. A. Fulvns or Fulviun 86 Domitianus Aug. XII., and S. C. D. Metellianus 87 Domitianus Aug. XIII, and A. V. Saturninus 92 88 Domitianus Aug. XIV., and L. Minuchus Rufus 93 89 T. Aurelius Fulvus II., and A. 8. Attratinus 90 Domitianus Aug XV., and M. Cocceius Nervall 95 91 M. Ulpius Trajanus, and M. Acilius Glabrio 96 92 Domitianus Aug. XVI., and Q. V. Saturninus 93 Pompeius Collega, and Cornelius Priscus 94 L. N. Torquat. Asprenos, and T. S. M. Lateranus 95 Domitianus Aug. XVIL, and T. F. Clemens 96 C. Antistius Vetus, and C. Manlius Valens 97 Nerva Aug. II., and L. Verginius Rufus III. 98 Nerva Aug. IV., and M. Ulpius Trajanus Cesar ПI 99 A. Cornelius Palma, and C. Sosius Senecio |853 412148/145/138104100 Trajanus Aug. III., and M. Corn. Fronto III.

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