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the common editions add, eis peravoiav, unto repentance; but this is omitted in the Coder Vatic, and Beza, sixteen others, both the Syriac, both the Persic, Ethiop. Armen. Gothic, An glo-Saxon, all the Itala except three, the Vulgate, Clemens, Roman. Origen, Basil, Jerome, Augustin, Ambrose, and Barnabas. The omission is approved by Mill and Bengel, -Griesbach leaves it out of the text.

14. Thy disciples fast not?] Probably meaning that they did not fast so frequently as the others did, or for the same purposes, which is very likely, for the Pharisees had many superstitious fasts. They fasted in order to have lucky dreams-to obtain the interpretation of a dream, or to avert the evil import of a dream. They also fasted often, in order to obtain the things they wished for. The tract, Taanith, is full of these fasts, and of the wonders performed thus by the Jewish doctors.

15. Can the children of the bride-chamber] Nuppers. Or, vvuotov, bridegroom, as the Cod. Beza and several Versions have it. These persons were the companions of the bride groom, who accompanied him to the house of his father-in-law when he went to bring the bride to his own home. The marriage-feast, among the Jews, lasted seven days: but the new married woman was considered to be a bride for thirty days, Marriage feasts were times of extraordinary festivity, and even of riot, among several people of the East.

The issue of blood healed.

19 And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples.

20 b And, behold, a woman which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment:

21 For she said within herself, If I may but touch his gar. ment, I shall be whole.

b Mark 5. 25. Luke 8. 43.

verted, should be managed with care and tenderness. To im pose such duties and mortifications as are not absolutely necessary to salvation, before God has properly prepared the heart by his grace for them, is a conduct as absurd and ruinous as putting a piece of raw unscoured cloth on an old garment; it is, in a word, requiring the person to do the work of a man, while as yet he is but a little child. Preachers of the Gospel, and especially those who are instruments in God's hand, of many conversions, have need of much heavenly wisdom, that they may know how to watch over, guide, and advise those who are brought to a sense of their sin and danger. How many auspicious beginnings have been ruined by men's proceeding too hastily, endeavouring to make their own designs take place, and to have the honour of that success themselves, which is due only to God.

18. A certain ruler] There were two officers in the syna. gogue, noɔɔn un chazan ha-ceneseth, the bishop or overseer of the congregation; and noon w rosh ha-ceneseth, the head or ruler of the congregation. The Chazan takes the book of the law, and gives it to the Rosh, or ruler; and he appoints who shall read the different sections, &c. Jairus, who is the person intended here, was, in this latter sense, the ruler or governor of one of the synagogues, probably at Capernaum See Mark v. 22. Luke viii. 41.

My daughter is even now dead) Or, my daughter was just now dying: apti eteλcutnoev, or, is by this time dead, i. e. as Mr. Wakefield properly observes, She was so ill when I left home that she must be dead by this time. This turn of in Mark and Luke. Michaelis conjectures, that in the Hebrew original, the words must have stood thus, n nny atah matah; which, without the points, may signify either She is dead, or, She is dying.

When the bridegroom shall be taken from them, &c.] There was only one annual fast observed in the primitive church, called by our ancestors, lencten-rærten, the spring fast; and by us, LENT; by the Greeks ToσEpakos, and by the Lathe expression reconciles the account given here, with that tins, Quadrigessima. This fast is pretended to be kept by many in the present day, in commemoration of our Lord's forty days fast in the wilderness; but it does not appear that, in the purest ages of the primitive church, genuiue Christians ever pretended that their quadrigessimal fast was kept for the above purpose. Their fast was kept merely to commemorate the time during which Jesus Christ lay under the power of death; which was about FORTY HOURS and it was in this sense they understood the words of this text: the days will come, &c. with them, the bridegroom meant Christ; the time in which he was taken away, his crucifixion, death, and the time he lay in the grave. Suppose hin dying about 12 o'clock on what is called Friday, and that he rose about four on the morning of his own day (St. John says, Early, while it was yet dark, chap. xx. 1.) the interim makes forty hours, which was the true primitive Lent, or quadrigessimal fast. It is true that many in the primitive church were not agreed on this subject, as Socrates in his Church History, book v. chap. 22. says, "Some thought they should fast one day; others two; others more."-Different churches also were divided concerning the length of the time: some keeping it three, others five, and others seven weeks: and the historian himself is puzzled to know why they all agreed in calling these fasts, differing so much in their duration, by the name of Quadrigessima, or forty days fast: the plain obvious reason appears to me to have been simply this: they put DAYS In the place of HOURS; and this absurdity continues in some Christian churches to the present day. For more on fasting, see chap. vi. 16.

16. No man putteth a piece of new cloth] Ovdeis de emißaλdet επιβλημα ρακούς αγραφου επι ιματίω παλαίω. No man putteth a patch of unscoured cloth upon an old garment. This is the inost literal translation I can give of this verse, to convey its meaning to those who cannot consult the original. Paxos ayvapor is that cloth which has not been scoured, or which has not passed under the hand of the fuller, who is called γραφεύς in Greek : and επίβλημα signifies a piece put on, or what we commonly term a patch.

It-taketh from the garment] Instead of closing up the rent, it makes a larger, by tearing away with it the whole breadth of the cloth, over which it was laid; aipei yap To nλnowpa avrov,-it_taketh its fulness or whole breadth from the garment; this I am persuaded is the meaning of the original, well expressed by the Latin, or Itala of the C. BEZE, Tollit enim plenitudo ejus de vestimento. "It takes away its fullness from the garment."

17. New wine into old bottles] It is still the custom in the eastern countries, to make their bottles of goat-skins; if hese happened to be old, and new wine were put into them, the violence of the fermentation must necessarily burst them, and therefore newly made bottles were employed for the purpose of putting that wine in, which had not yet gone through its state of fermentation. The institutes of Christ, and those of the Pharisees, could never be brought to accord: an attempt to combine the two systems, would be as absurd as it would be destructive. The old covenant made way for the new, which was its completion and its end: but with that old covenant the new cannot be incorporated.

Christian prudence requires that the weak, and newly con

To be successful in our applications to God by prayer, four things are requisite, and this ruler teaches us what they are First, a man should place himself in the presence of God— he came unto him. Secondly, He should humble himself sin. cerely before God-he fell down before him-at his feet. Mark v. 22. Thirdly, He should lay open his wants with a holy earnestness-he besought him greatly. Mark v. 23. Fourthly He should have unbounded confidence in the power and goodness of Christ that his request shall be granted-put thy hand upon her, and she shall live. He who comes in this way to God for salvation, is sure to be heard. Imposition of hands was a rite anciently used by the servants of God, through which heavenly influences were conveyed to the bodies and souls of men. This rite is still used in certain churches; but as there is no Holy Ghost communicated by it, some suppose it may be as well omitted. But why is this? Is it not because there is an unfaithfulness in the person who lays on hands, or an unfitness in him on whom they are laid? Let the rite be restored to its primitive simplicity, and God will own it as he formerly did. But, however this may be, where is the pian or number of men who have authority to abrogate a rite of God's own appointment? In the appointment of men to the sacred ministry it should never be omitted: even in these degenerate days, it may still serve as a sign of the necessity of the gifts and graces of that Holy Spirit, without which no man can fulfil the work of that ministry, or be the instrument of saving the souls of them that hear him. When the inventions of men are put in the place of the ordinances of God, the true church of Christ is in great danger.

19. Jesus arose and followed him.] Our blessed Lord could have acted as well at a distance, as present; but he goes to the place, to teach his ministers not to spare either their steps or their pains when the salvation of a soul is in question. Let them not think it sufficient to pray for the sick in their closets; but let them go to their bed sides, that they may instruct and comfort them. He can have little unction in private, who does not also give himself up to public duties.

20. A woman which was diseased with an issue of blood) Tvun aipopovoa. Mulier sanguinis profluvio laborans. Sig. nificatur hoc loco, fluxus muliebris, in SANIS, menstruus; in HAC, perpetuus. It would be easy to explain the nature and properties of the disease here mentioned; but when it is said that prudence forbids it, the intimation itself may be thought sufficiently explanatory of the disorder in question. There are some remarkable circumstances relative to this case, mentioned by St. Mark, chap. v. 25, &c. which shall be properly noticed in the notes on that place.

The hem of his garment] The ny tsitsith, or fringes, which the Jews were commanded to wear on their garments. See Num. xv. 38. and the note there.

21. She said within herself, If I may but touch his garmen!) Her disorder was of that delicate nature, that modesty forbade her to make any public acknowledgment of it: and therefore she endeavoured to transact the whole business in private. Besides, the touch of such a person was reputed unclean. By

The dumb


22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour. 23 And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise,

24 He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn.

25 But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took
her by the hand, and the maid arose.

26 And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land.
27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed
nim,crying, and saying, Thou son of David, have mercy on us.

Luke 7. 50, & P. 46 & 17, 19, & 15. 4o-b Mark 5 33. Luke 8 51-c Fee 2 Chr. 3-d Acte 20. 10. Or, this fame. -f Ch 12. & 20, 30, 31. Mark 10. 47, 45

demoniac healed. 28 And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. 29 Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you.

30 And their eyes were opened; and Jesus straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it.

31 But they, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country.

32 i As they went out, behold they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.

33 And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake and the Luke 19. 38, 30-g Ch. 8. 4 & 12. 16. & 17. 9. Luke 5. 14.- Mark 7.36.-i See Ch 12 2. Luke 11. 14.

faith in Christ Jesus, little things are often rendered effica- culed him: from wara, intensive, and yeλaw, I laughed-they cious to our salvation. What more simple than a morsel of grinned a ghastly smile, expressive of the contempt they felt bread, and a few drops of wine, in the Lord's Supper! and yet, for his person and knowledge. People of the world generally they who receive them by faith in the sacrifice they represent, laugh at those truths which they neither comprehend nor love, are made partakers of the blessings purchased by the cruciand deride those who publish them; but a faithful minister of fied body, and spilt blood of the Lord Jesus! God (copying the example of Christ) keeps on his way, and does the work of his Lord and Master.

26. And the fame hereof went abroad] In this business Jesus himself scarcely appears, but the work effected by his sovereign power, is fully manifested; to teach us that it is the business of a successful preacher of the Gospel to conceal himself as much as possible, that God alone may have the glory of his own grace. This is a proper miracle, and a full exemplification of the unlimited power of Christ.

27. Son of David] This was the same as if they had called him Messiah. Two things here are worthy of remark: 1st. That it was a generally received opinion at this time in Judea, that the Messiah should be Son of David. (John vii. 47.) 2dly. That Jesus Christ was generally and incontestably ac knowledged as coming from this stock. Matt. xii. 23.

22. Daughter, be of good comfort) Oupost Ovyarep, take courage, daughter. See on ver. 2. The reason of this kind 25. He took her by the hand, and the maid arose.] The speech was, Jesus finding that virtue had proceeded from fountain of life thus communicating its vital energy to the him, de inquiry who had touched him. The woman find dead body. Where death has already taken place, no power ing that she could not be hid, came fearing and trembling, but that of the great God can restore to life; in such a case, (Mark v. 33.) and confessed the truth; to dispel these fears, vain is the help of man. So the soul that is dead in trespasses and to comfort her mind, Jesus said. Daughter, take courage. and sins, that is, sentenced to death because of transgression; Thy faith hath made thee whole] Hrioris σov σCOWKE σE, This and is thus dead in law, can only be restored to spiritual life thy faith hath saved thee; i. e. thy faith in my power has inte- by the mighty power of the Lord Jesus; because He alone rested that power in thy behalf, so that thou art saved from thy has made the atonement, and He alone can pardon transgresdisorder, and from all its consequences. See on Luke viii. 46. sion. If the spiritually dead person be utterly unconcerned 23. Saw the minstrels and the people making a noise] Av-about the state and fate of his soul, let a converted relative Anras, pipers; Anglo-Saxon hpirtlenar, the whistlers; Gothic either bring him to Christ by leading him to hear the una baurngans haurngandans, the horn-blowers, blowing with dulterated Gospel of the kingdom; or bring Christ to him by their horns. Nearly the same as the pipublasara, pipe-blow. fervent, faithful, and persevering prayer. ers of the Icelandic, for among all those nations funeral lamentations, accompanied with such rude instruments, were made at the death of relatives. That pipes were in use among the Jews, in times of calamity or death, is evident from Jer. xlviii. 36. And among the Greeks and Romans, as well as among the Jews, persons were hired on purpose to follow the funeral procession with lamentations. See Jer. ix. 17-21. Amos v. 16. Even the poorest among the Jews, were required to have two pipers, and one mourning woman. At these funeral solemnities it was usual with them to drink considerably; even ten cups of wine each, where it could be got. See Lightfoot. This custom is observed among the native Irish to this day, in what is called their CAOINAN. The body of the deceased, dressed in grave clothes, and ornamented with flowers, is placed on some eminent place; the relations and caoiners renge themselves in two divisions, one at the head, and the other at that feet of the corpse. Anciently, where the deceased was a great personage, the bards and croteries prepared the caoinan. The chief bard of the head chorus, began by singing the first stanza in a low doleful tone: which was softly accompanied by the harp. At the conclusion, the foot semichorus began the lamentation or ULLALOO, from the final note of the preceding stanza, in which they were answered by the head semichorus; then both united in one general chorus. The chorus of the first stanza being ended, the chief bard of the foot semichorus sung the second stanza, the strain of which was taken from the concluding note of the preceding chorus, which ended, the head semichorus began the GOL, or lamen. tation, in which they were answered by that of the foot, and then, as before, they both united in the general full chorus. Thus alternately were the song and chorusses performed du ring the night. I have seen a number of women, sometimes fourteen, twenty-four, or more, accompany the deceased from his late house to the graveyard, divided into two parties on each side the corpse, singing the ULLALOO alternately all the way. That drinking, in what is called the wake, or watching with the body of the deceased, is practised, and often carried to a shameless excess, needs little proof. This kind of intemperance proceeded to such great lengths among the Jews, that the sanhedrim were obliged to make a decree, to restrain the drinking to ten cups eacli. I mention these things more par ticularly, because I have often observed that the customs of the aboriginal Irish bear a very striking resemblance to those of the ancient Jews, and other Asiatic nations. The applica

tion of these observations I leave to others.

It was a custom with the Greeks to make a great noise with brazen vessels; and the Romans made a general outery, called conclamatio, hoping either to stop the soul which was now taking its flight, or to awaken the person, if only in a state of for por. This they did for eight days together, calling the person incessantly by his name; at the expiration of which term the phrase, conclamatum est, all is orer, there is no hope, was used. See the words used in this sense by Terence, EUN, 1. 347. In all probability this was the (novßovμevov) making a violent outcry, mentioned here by the evangelist. How often, on the death of relatives, do inen incumber and perplex themselves with vain, worldly, and tumultuous ceremonies, nstead of making profitable reflections on death!

24. The maid is not dead, but sleepeth] That is, she is not dead so as to continue under the power of death; but shall be raised from it as a person is from natural sleep. They laughed him to scorn.]_Kateyɛλwv avrov, they ridi

Have mercy on us.] That man has already a measure of heavenly light, who knows that he has no merit; that his cry should be a cry for mercy; that he must be fervent, and that in praying he must follow Jesus Christ as the true Messiah, the Son of David expected from heaven.

28. When he was come into the house] That is, the house of Peter at Capernaum, where he ordinarily lodged. Believe ye that I am able to do this ?] Without faith Jesus does nothing to men's souls now, no more than he did to their bodies in the days of his flesh.

They said unto him, Yea, Lord.] In our blindness we should have, 1st. A lively faith in the almighty grace of Christ. 2dly. A fervent incessant cry for the communication of this grace. 3dly. A proper view of his incarnation, because it is through his union with our nature, and by his sufferings and death, we are to expect salvation.

29. According to your faith] See on chap. viii. 13.

30. Straitly charged them] He charged them severely, eveẞpiuntaro, from cv, and Bouaouai, to roar or storm with anger; he charged them on pain of his displeasure, not to make it as yet public. See the reasons, chap. viii. 4.

31. But they spread abroad his fame] They should have held their peace; for to obey is better than sacrifice. 1 Sam. xv. 22. but man must always be wiser than God. However, it may be profitable to remark, 1st. That honour pursues those who fly from it. 2dly. He who is thoroughly sensible of God's mercy, cannot long contain his acknowledgments. 3dly. That God in general requires that what a man has recetved for his own salvation, shall become subservient to that of others-Let your light so shine, &c God chooses to help man by man, that all may be firmly knit together in brotherly love

32. A dumb man possessed with a devil.] Some demons rendered the persons they possessed paralytic, some blind others dumb, &c. It was the interest of Satan to hide his influences under the appearance of natural disorders. A man who does not acknowledge his sin to God, prays not for salvation, who returns no praises for the mercies he is continually receiving, may well be said to be possessed with a dumb demon.

33. And when the deril was cast out, the dumb spake] The very miracle which was now wrought, was to be the demonstrative proof of the Messiah's being manifested in the flesh. See Isa. xxxv. 5, 6.

It was never so seen in Israel.] The greatest of the

phets has never been able to do such miracles as these. This was the remark of the people: and thus we find, that the poor and the simple were more ready to acknowledge the hand of God, than the rich and the learned. Many miracles have been wrought in the course of this one day, and this excited their surprise.

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multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. 34 But the Pharisees said, "He casteth out devils through the prince of the devils.

35 And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teach ing in their synagogues, and preaching the Gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and every disease among t..e people.

Ch. 12. 24. Mark 3. 22. Luke 11. 15-b Mark C. 6. Luke 13, 22. Dan 2. 44.c Ch 4.23-d Mark 6. 34.-e Or, were tired, and lay down.

34. Ile casteth out devils through the prince of the devils.] This verse is wanting in both the Greek and Latin of the C. Beze, in another copy of the Itala, and in Hilary and Juvencus. But see on chap. xii. 24.

It is a consummate piece of malice to attribute the works | of God to the devil. Envy cannot suffer the approbation which is given to the excellencies of others. Those whose hearts are possessed by this vice, speak the very language of the devil. Calumny is but a little distance from enry. Though all persons may not have as much envy as the Phasees; yet they should fear having some degree of it, as all have the principle from which it proceeds, viz, sin.

35. Jesus went about all the cities and villages] Of Gali lee. See on chap. iv. 23, 24. A real minister of Jesus Christ, after his example, is neither detained in one place by a com fortable provision made by some; nor discouraged from pursuing his work by the calumny and persecution of others. It is proper to remark, that wherever Christ comes, the proofs of his presence evidently appear; he works none but salu tary and beneficial miracles, because his ministry is a minis. try of salvation.

Among the people.] Ev Tw daw. This clause is omitted by about fifty MSS., several of them of the first antiquity and authority; by the Complutensian, and by Bengel by both the Syriac, both the Arabic, both the Persic; the Ethiopic, Gothic, Saxon, and all the Itala, except four. Griesbach has left it out of the text.

36. Moved with compassion] Eonday xviolin, froin ordayXvov, a bowel. The Jews esteemed the bowels to be the seat of sympathy and the tender passions, and so applied the organ to the sense.

Endayxvicopal signifies, says Mintert, "to be moved with pity from the very inmost bowels. It is an emphatic word, signifying a vehement affection of commiseration, by which the bowels, and especially the heart, is moved." Both this verb and the noun seem to be derived from ora, to draw; the whole intestinal canal, in the peristaltic motion of the bowels, being drawn, affected, and agitated with the sight of a distressed or miserable object. Pity increases this motion of the bowels, and produces considerable pain: hence orλayxvipai, to have the bowels moved, signifies to feel pity or compassion, at seeing the miseries of others.

They fainted] Instead of Exλɛdvμɛvot, fainted, all the best MSS, Versions and Fathers, read convλμevot, grieved, and me lancholy, Kypke says okule, properly signifies, to pluck off the hair, as persons do in extreme sorrow or distress. The margin says, They were tired, and lay down.

and necessity of labourers.

36 But when he saw the maltitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and were scattered abroad, fas sheep having no shepherd.

37 Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few;

38 Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest.

f Num. 7. 17. 1 Kings 22. 17. Ezek. 31. 5. Zeer 10.2-g Luke 10. 2. John 4. 5. b 2 Thess. 3. 1.

38. That he will send forth labourers] Oros exßaλλn εøyaras, that he would thrust forth labourers. Those who are fit. test for the work, are generally most backward to the employ ment. The man who is forward to become a preacher, knows little of God, of human nature, or of his own heart. It is God's providence to thrust out such, preachers as shall le bour; and it is our duty to entrent him to do so. A minister of Christ is represented as a day-labourer: he comes into the harvest, not to become lord of it, not to live on the labour of others, but to work, and to labour his day. Though the work may be very severe, yet, to use a familiar expression, there is good wages in the harvest-home; and the day, though hot is but a short one. How earnestly should the flock of Christ pray to the good Shepherd to send them pastors after his own heart, who will feed them with knowledge; and who shall be the means of spreading the knowledge of his truth, and the savour of his grace over the face of the whole earth.

The subject of fasting, already slightly noticed in the pre ceding notes, should be further considered.

In all countries, and under all religions, fasting has not only been considered a duty, but also of extraordinary virtue to procure blessings and to avert evils. Hence it has often been practised with extraordinary rigour, and abused to the most superstitions purposes. There are twelve kinds of fasts aniong the Hindoos: 1. The person neither eats nor drinks for a day and night. This fast is indispensable, and occurs twenty-nine times in the year. 2 The person fasts during the day, and eats at night. 3. The person eats nothing but fruits, and drinks milk or water. 4. He eats once during the day and night. 5. Eats one particular kind of food during the day and night, but as often as he pleases. 6. Called Chande raym, which is, to eat on the first day only one mouthful, two on the second; and thus continue increasing one mouth ful every day for a month, and then decreasing a mouthful every day, till he leaves off where he began. 7. The person neither eats nor drinks for twelve days. 8. Lasts twelve days; the first three days he eats a little once in the day; the next three, he eats only once in the night; the next three, he eats nothing, unless it be brought to him; and during the last three days, he neither eats nor drinks. 9. Lasts fifteen days. For three days and three nights, he eats only one handful at night; the next three days and nights, he eats one handful, if it be brought him, if not, he takes nothing. Then he eats nothing for three days and three nights. The next three days and nights he takes only a handful of warm water each day. The next three days and nights he takes a handful of warm milk each day. 10. For three days and nights he neither eats nor drinks. He lights a fire, and sits at a door where there enters a hot wind, which he draws in with his breath. nothing but leaves; three days and three nights, nothing but the Indian fig; three days and three nights, nothing but the seed of the lotus; three days and three nights, nothing but peepul leaves; three days and three nights, the expressed juice of a particular kind of grass called doobah. 12. Lasts a week. First day he eats milk; second, milk-curds; third, ghee, i. e. clarified butter; fourth, cow's urine; fifth, cow's dung; sixth, water; seventh, nothing.

And were scattered abroad] Eppipμevot, thrown down, or all along. They were utterly neglected as to the interests of their souls, and rejected by the proud and disdainful Phari-11. Lasts fifteen days. Three days and three nights he eats sees. This people (oxos, this mob) that knoweth not the law, is accursed, John vii. 49. Thus, these execrable men spoke of the souls that God had made, and of whom they should have been the instructers.

Those teachers in name, have left their successors behind them but as in the days of Christ, so now, God has in his aercy rescued the flock out of the hands of those who only fed upon their flesh, and clothed themselves with their wool. The days in which a man was obliged to give his property to what was called THE church, for the salvation of his soul, Christ being left out of the question, are, thank God, nearly over and gone. Jesus is the true Shepherd; without him there is nothing but fainting, fatigue, veration, and dispersion. O that we may be led out and in by him, and find pasture!

37. The harvest] The souls who are ready to receive the truth, are very numerous; but the labourers are few. There are multitudes of scribes, Pharisees, and priests, of reverend and right reverend men; but there are few that work. Jesus wishes for labourers, not gentlemen, who are either idle drones, or slaves to pleasure and sin, and nati consumere fruges" Born to consume the produce of the soil."

During every kind of fast, the person sleeps on the ground, plays at no game, has no connexion with woman, neither shaves nor anoints himself, and bestows alms each day.AYEEN AKBERY, vol. iii. p. 247-250. How much more simple and effectual is the way of salvation taught in the BIBLE! but because it is true, it is not credited by fallen man.

FASTING is considered by the Mohammedans as an essen tial part of piety. Their orthodox divines term it the gate of religion. With them it is of two kinds, voluntary, and incumbent; and is distinguished by the Mosliman doctors into three degrees: 1. The refraining from every kind of nourishment or carnal indulgence. 2. The restraining the various members from every thing which might excite sinful or eor rupt desires. 3. The abstracting the mind wholly from world. It was customary with the Jews to call their rabbins and ly cares, and fixing it exclusively upon God. Their great anstudents reapers; and their work of instruction the harvest.nual fast is kept on the month Ramzan, or Ramadhan, be So in lara Rabba, s. 2. "The days are few; the creditor is ginning at the first new moon, and continuing until the ap urgent: the crier calls out incessantly; and the reapers are pearance of the next; during which it is required to abstain ew" And in Pirkey Aboth; "The day is short, the work from every kind of nourishment from day-break till atter great, the workmen idle, the reward abundant, and the mas-sun-set of each day. From this observance none are exier of the household is urgent." In all worldly concerns, if cused but the sick, the aged, and children. This is prothere be the prospect of much gain, most men are willingperly the Mohammedan Lent. See HEDAYAH, prel. Dis. p. enough to labour; but if it be to save their own souls, or the Lv. LVI. souls of others, what indolence, backwardness, and carelessness! while their adversary, the devil, is going about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour; and a careless soul, and especially a careless minister, is his especial prey. The place of the harvest is the hole earth: it signifies Jittle where a man works, provided it be by the appointment, in the Spirit, and with the blessing of God.

It is worthy of remark, that these children of the Bride. groom, the disciples, did not mourn, were exposed to no per secution, while the Bridegroom, the Lord Jesus, was with them: but after he had been taken from them, by death and his ascension, they did fast and mourn; they were exposed to all manner of hardships, persecutions, and even death itself, in sune of worst foring.

The twelve disciples chosen.


Their names and commissions,


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Gives them particular instructions relative to the objects Jesus calls, commissions, and names his twelve disciples, 1-4. of their ministry, 5, 6. Mode of preaching, &c. 7-15. Foretells the afflictions and persecutions they would have to enCautions them against betraying his cause, in order to procure their dure, and the support they should receive, 16-25. personal safety, 26-39. And gires especial promises to those who should assist his faithful servants in the execution of their work, 40-42. [A. M. 4031. A. D. 27. An. Olymp. CCI. 3.]

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ND when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness, and all manner of disease.

2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;

4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also be-
trayed him.

5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them,
saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any
6h But go rather to the i lost sheep of the house of Israel.
city of the Samaritans enter ye not:
7k And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven

3 Philip and Bartholomew: Thomas, and Matthew the pub-is at hand.
fican; James the son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus, whose sur-
name was Thaddeus;

a Mark 3, 13, 11. & 6.7, Luke fi, 13, & 9. 1.-b Òr. over-c John 1, 42,-d Luke 6 13 Acts 1. 13.- John 1, 36-71h, 4, 15- See 2 Kings 17. 24. John 4. 9, 20.

NOTES-Verse 1. Twelve disciples] Our Lord seems to have had the fuelce patriarchs, heads of the congregation of Israel, in view in his choosing twelve disciples. That he had the plan of the ancient Jewish church in his eye, is sufficiently evident from chap. xix. 28. and from Luke x. 1. xxii. 30. John xvii. 1. and Rev. xxi. 12-14.

He gave them power against unclean spirits] The word Kara, against, which our translators have supplied in Italie, is found in many MSS. of good note, and in the principal Versions. Here we find the first call to the Christian ministry, and the end proposed by the commission given. To call persons to the ministry, belongs only to Him who can give them power to cast out unclean spirits. He whose ministry is not accom panied with healing to diseased souls, was never called of God. But let it be observed, that though the spiritual gifts requisite for the ministry must be supplied by God himself; yet this does not preclude the importance of human learning. No man can have his mind too well cultivated, to whom a dispensation of the Gospel is committed. The influence of the Spirit of God was no more designed to render human learning useless; than that learning should be considered us superseding the necessity of divine inspiration.

It is worthy of notice, that those who were Christ's apostles were first his disciples; to intimate, that men must be first taught of God, before they be sent of God. Jesus Christ never made an apostle of any man, who was not first his scholar, or disciple. These twelve apostles were chosen, 1. That they might be with our Lord to see and witness his miracles, and hear his doctrine. 2. That they might bear testimony of the former, and preach his truth to mankind..

8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out
devils: freely ye have received, freely give.

h Ch. 15. 24. Aets 13. 46.-i Isa. 53. 6. Jer. 50. 6, 17. Ezek. 34. 5, 6, 16. 1 Pet. 2
25.-k Luke 9. 2-1 Ch. 3, 2. & 4. 17. Luke 10. 9.-m Acts 6. 18, 2).

trayed him, is very exceptionable, as it seems to imply, he
5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded] To
was betrayed by some others as well as by Judas.
1. filled with the Spirit of holiness; 2. called to this particular
be properly qualified for a minister of Christ, a man must be,
work; 3. instructed in its nature, &c. and 4. commissioned
are four different gifts which a man must receive from God by
to go forth, and testify the Gospel of the grace of God. These
Christ Jesus. To these let him add all the human qualifica-
tions he can possibly attain; as in his arduous work he will
require every gift and every grace.

Go not into the way of the Gentiles] Our Lord only intended that the first offers of salvation should be made to the Jewish people; and that the heathen should not be noticed in this first mission, that no stumbling-block might be cast in the way of the Jews.

Into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not] The Samaritans had afterwards the Gospel preached to them by Christ himself, John iv. 4, &c. for the reason assigned above. Such has designed his greatest benefits, (witness the Samaritans, as God seems at first to pass by, are often those for whom he and the Gentiles in general) but he has his own proper time to discover and reveal them.

The history of the Samaritans is sufficiently known fron 2. Apostles] This is the first place where the word is used. Arosolos, an apostle, comes from anseλλw, Isend a message. The word was anciently used to signify a person cominission- the Old Testament. Properly speaking, the inhabitants of the ed by a king to negotiate any affair between him and any other city of Samaria should be termed Samaritans; but this epithet power or people. Hence arosodot and knoʊkes, apostles and belongs chiefly to the people sent into that part of the promis world 3283, when he carried the Israelites that dwelt there heralds, are of the same import in Herodotus.-See the re-ed land by Salmanezer, king of Assyria, in the year of the marks at the end of chap. iii. captives beyond the Euphrates, and sent a mixed people, prin. cipally Cuthites, to dwell in their place. These were altoge. ther heathens at first; but they afterwards incorporated the worship of the true God with that of their idols. See the whole account, 2 Kings xvii. 5, &c. From this time they feared Jehovah, and served other gods till after the Babylonish capobtained permission to build a temple upon Mount Gerizim, tivity. From Alexander the Great, Sanballat, their governor, which the Jews conceiving to be in opposition to their temple at Jerusalem, hated them with a perfect hatred, and would have no fellowship with them. The Samaritans acknowledge the divine authority of the Law of Moses, and carefully pre serve it in their own characters, which are probably the Hebrew being that of the Chaldeans. The Samaritan Pentagenuine ancient Hebrew; the character which is now called teuch is printed in the London Polyglott; and is an undeniable louse, the ancient Shechem: but they exist in a state of very record. A poor remnant of this people is found still at Napgreat poverty and distress; and probably will soon become extinct.

The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, &c. We are not to suppose that the word pros, first, refers to any kind of dignity, as some have imagined; it nerely signifies the first in order-the person first mentioned. A pious man remarks: "God here unites by grace those who were before united by nature." Though nature cannot be deemed a step towards grace, yet it is not to be considered as always a hinderance to it. Happy the brothers who are joint envoys of heaven, and the parents who have two or more children employed as ainbassadors for God!

3. Bartholomew] Many are of opinion that this was Na thanael, mentioned John i. 46. whose name was probably Na. thanael Bar Talmai, Nathanael the son of Talmai; here, his own name is repressed, and h is called Bar Talmai, or Bartholomew, from his father.

Matthew the publican] The writer of this history. See

the Preface.

James the son of Alpheus] This person was also called
Cleopas, or Clopas, Luke xxiv. 18. John xix. 25. He had
married Mary, sister to the blessed Virgin, John xix. 25.
4. Simon] He was third son of Alpheus and brother of
James and Jude or Judas. Matt. xiii. 55.

The Canaanite] This word is not put here to signify a par-
ticular people, as it is elsewhere used in the Sacred Writings;
but it is formed from the Hebrew Np kana, which significs
zealous, literally translated by Luke, chap. vi. 15. nwrns,
zelotes, or the zealous, probably from his great fervency in
preaching the Gospel of his Master. But see Luke vi. 15.

6. But go rather to the lost sheep, &c.] The Jewish church from their Shepherd, and were lost. Our blessed Lord sends was the ancient fold of God; but the sheep had wandered the Shepherd and Overseer of their souls. these under-shepherds to seek, find, and bring them back to

7. And as ye go, preach] Пopsvojevol de knovocere, and as wherever ye go, and while ye are journeying. Preach and you proceed, proclaim like heralds-make this proclamation you meet. Wherever the ministers of Christ go, they find travel; and as ye travel, preach-proclaim salvation to all lost ruined souls; and wherever they find them, they should proclaim Jesus, and his power to save. For an explanation of the word proclaim, or preach, see on chap. iii. 1. Fron this commission we learn what the grand subject of apostolic "They preached," says Quesnel, was the great message. preaching was-THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS AT HAND! This

Judas Iscariot] Probably from the Hebrew p N ish" to establish the faith: the kingdom, to animate the hope; fempt of earthly; which is at hand, that men may prepare kerioth, a man of Kerioth, which was a city in the tribe of of heaven, to inspire the love of heavenly things, and the conJudah, Josh. xv. 25. where it is likely this man was born. AS NON iscara, signifies the quinsey, or strangulation, for it without delay." and Judas hanged himself after he had betrayed our Lord, Dr. Lightfoot seems inclined to believe that he had his name from this circumstance, and that it was not given him till after his death.

Who also betrayed him] Rather, even he who betrayed him, or delivered him up; for so, I think, o kai rapadovs avrov, should be translated. The common translation, who also be

8. Raise the dead] This is wanting in the MSS. marked EKLMS of Griesbach, and in those marked BHV of Mathai, the Syriac, (Vienna edition) latter Persic, Sahidic, Armenian, and in upwards of one hundred others. It is also wanting in Slavonic, and in one copy of the Itala; also in Athanasius, 51 Basil, and Chrysostom. There is no evidence that the disciples raised any dead person previously to the resurrection of

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9 Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, 10 Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves; for the workman is worthy of his meat. 11 And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, inquire who in it is worthy. and there abide till ye go thence. 12 And when ye come into a house, salute it.

13 And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon tt: h but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you.

a1 Sam. 9. 7. Mk. 6. 8. Lk. 9. 3.6 10. 4. & 22. 3.-b Or, Get.-c See Mark 6 8Gr. & staffe Luke 10. 7. 1 Cor. 9. 7, &e. 1 Tim. 5. 18- Luke 10. 8- Luke 10. 6-h Paa. 35. 13.

Christ. The words should certainly be omitted, unless we could suppose that the authority now given respected not only their present mission, but comprehended also their future conduct. But that our blessed Lord did not give this power to his disciples at this time, is, I think, pretty evident from ver. 1. and from Luke ix. 6, 10. x. 19, 20. where if any such power had been given, or exercised, it would doubtless have been mentioned. Wetstein has rejected it, and so did Griesbach in his first edition; but in the second (1796) he has left it in the text, with a note of doubtfulness.

Freely ye have received, freely give.] A rule very necessary, and of great extent. A ininister, or labourer in the Gospel vineyard, though worthy of his comfortable support while in the work, should never preach for hire, or make a secular traffic of a spiritual work. What a scandal is it for a man to traffic with gifts, which he pretends at least to have received from the Holy Ghost, of which he is not the master, but the dispenser. He who preaches to get a living, or to make a fortune, is guilty of the most infamous sacrilege.

themselves in their preaching

14 i And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet.

15 Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city.


Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: "Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as P doves. i Mark 6. 11 Luke 9. 3. & 10. 10, 11-k Neh. 5. 13 Acts 13 51. & 13 6-1 Ch. 11 22, m Luke 10 3-n Rom. 16. 19. Eph. 5 15-01 Cor. 14. 20. Phil 2. 13 – p Or, simple.

salvation, the cultivation of his mind, and the work of the ministry. He, to whom time is not precious, and who lives not by rule, never finds time sufficient for any thing;-is always embarrassed-always in a hurry, and never capable of bring ing one good purpose to proper effect.

12. Salute it] Λεγοντες, ειρήνη εν τω οίκω τούτω, saying "Peace be to this house." This clause, which, as explanatory of the word arnasaobe, is necessary to the connexion in which it now stands, is added by the MSS. D and L. and forty-three others, the Armenian, Ethiopic, Slavonic, Saxon, Vulgate, all the copies of the old Itala, Theophylact, and Hilary. The clause is also found in several modern versions. The modern Greek, has Aɛyourss' Expnun els to akyuri touro. The Italian, by Matthew of Erberg, and of Diodati, renders it thus: Pace sia a questa casa, Peace be to this house.

It is found also in Wickliff, and in my old MS. Sepinge, pees be to this hous. Some suppose it is an addition taken froin Luke, but there is nearly as much reason to believe he took it from Matthew.

9. Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses] Peace, among the Hebrews, had a very extensive Εις τας ζώνας υμων, in your GIRDLE. It is supposed that the meaning:-it comprehended all blessings, spiritual and tem people of the East carry their money in a fold of their girdles. poral. Hence that saying of the rabbins, nibiba nyaran baz This is scarcely correct: they carry it in a purse in their bo- Gadal Shalom, shecol haberaroth culoloth bo. Greut som, under their girdles. This I have often observed. is PEACE, for all other blessings are comprehended in it. In a thousand instances an apostolic preacher, who goes to To wish peace to a family, in the name and by the authority the wilderness to seek the lost sheep, will be exposed to hun- of Christ, was in effect a positive promise on the Lord's side, ger and cold, and other inconveniences-he must therefore re- of all the good implied in the wish. This was paying largely sign himself to God, depending on his providence for the ne- even beforehand. Whoever receives the messengers of God cessaries of life. If God have sent him, he is bound to support into his house, confers the highest honour upon himself, and him, and will do it; anxiety therefore, in him, is a double crime, not upon the preacher, whose honour is from God, and who as it insinuates a bad opinion of the Master who has employed comes with the blessings of life eternal to that man and his him. Every missionary should make himself master of this family who receives him. subject.

Have no money in your purse, is a command, obedience to which was secured by the narrow circumstances of most of the primitive, genuine preachers of the Gospel. Whole herds of friars mendicants have professed the same principle, and abandoned themselves to voluntary poverty; but if the money be in the heart it is a worse evil. In the former case it may be a temptation to sin; in the latter it must be ruinous.

10. Nor scrip for your journey] To carry provisions. This was called on tormil, by the rabbins; it was a leathern pouch hung about their necks, in which they put their victuals. This was, properly, the shepherd's bag.

Neither two coats, &c.] Nothing to encumber you. Nor yet stares) Paßdov, a staff, as in the margin; but, instead of paẞdov, staff, which is the common reading, all the following MSS. and Versions have paßdovs, staves, and CEFGK LMPS. V. ninety-three others, Coptic, Armenian, latter Syriac, one of the Itala, Chrysostom, and Theophylact. This reading is of great importance, as it reconciles this place with Luke ix. 3. and removes the seeming contradiction from Mark vi. 8. As if he had said, "Ye shall take nothing to defend yourselves with, because ye are the servants of the Lord, and are to be supported by his bounty, and defended by his power. In a word, be like men in haste, and eager to begin the important work of the ministry. The sheep are lost, ruined:-Satan is devouring them:-give all diligence to pluck them out of the jaws of the destroyer."

The workman is worthy of his meat.] Tns rpoons aurov, of his maintenance. It is a maintenance, and that only, which a minister of God is to expect; and that he has a divine right to; but not to make a fortune, or lay up wealth: besides, it is the workman, he that labours in the word and doctrine, that is to get even this. How contrary to Christ is it for a inan to have vast revenues as a minister of the Gospel, who ministers no Gospel, and who spends the revenues of the church to its disgrace and ruin ?

11. Into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter] In the com mencement of Christianity, Christ and his preachers were all Itinerant

Inquire who in it is worthy] That is, of a good character; for a preacher of the Gospel should be careful of his reputation, and lodge only with those who are of a regular life.

There abide till ye go thence.] Go not about from house to house, Luke x. 7. Acting contrary to this precept has often brought great disgrace on the Gospel of God. Stay in your own lodging as much as possible, that you may have time for prayer and study. Seldom frequent the tables of the rich and great; if you do, it will unavoidably prove a snare to you. The unction of God will perish from your mind, and your preaching be only a dry barren repetition of old things; the bread of God in your hands will be like the dry, mouldy, Gibeonitish crusts, mentioned Josh. ix. 5. He who knows the va.ue of time, and will redeem it from useless chit-chat, and rifling visits, will find enough for all the purposes of his own


13. If that house be worthy] If that family be proper for a preacher to lodge in, and the master be ready to embrace the message of salvation.

Your peace] The blessings you have prayed for, shall come upon the family; God will prosper them in their bodies, souls, and substance.

But if it be not worthy] As above explained.

Let your peace] The blessings prayed for, return to you. ПIрos vuus émis padŋrw, it shall turn back upon yourselves. 7hey shall get nothing, and you shall have an increase.

The trials, disappointments, insults, and wants of the followers of Christ, become in the hand of the all-wise God sub servient to their best interests. hence, nothing can happen to them without their deriving profit from it, unless it be their own fault.

14. Shake off the dust of your feet.] The Jews considered themselves defiled by the dust of a heathen country, which was represented by the prophets as a polluted land, Amos vii. 7. when compared with the land of Israel, which was considered as a holy land, Ezek. xlv. 1. therefore to shake the dust of any city of Israel from off one's clothes or feet, was an emblematical action, signifying a renunciation of all further connexion with them, and placing them on a level with the cities of the heathen. See Amos ix. 7.

15. In the day of judgment] Or, punishment,-protos. Perhaps not menning the day of general judgment, nor the day of the destruction of the Jewish state by the Romans; but a day in which God should send punishment on that par ticular city, or on that person, for their crimes. So the day of judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah, was the time in which the Lord destroyed them by fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven.

If men are thus treated for not receiving the preachers of the Gospel, what will it be to despise the Gospel itself-to decry it-to preach the contrary-to hinder the preaching of it-to abuse those who do preach it in its purity--or to render it fruitless by calumnies and lies? Their punishment, our Lord intimates, shall be greater than that inflicted on the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah!

16. Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolres] He who is called to preach the Gospel, is called to embrace a state of constant labour, and frequent suffering. He who gets ease and pleasure in consequence of embracing the ministerial office, neither preaches the Gospel, nor is sent of God. did the work of an evangelist, wicked men and demons would both oppose him.

If he

Wise (povipo, prudent) as serpents, and harmless as dores] This is a proverbial saying: so in Shir hashirim Rabba, fol. 16. "The holy blessed God said to the Israelites, Ye shall be towards me, as upright as the doves; but towards the Gentiles, as cunning as serpents."

There is a beauty in this saying which is seldom observed. The serpent is represented as prudent to excess, being full of cunning; Gen. iii. 1. 2 Cor. xi. 3. and the dove is simple, even

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