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Account of Manuscripts, &c.

used where the Latin language was spoken;
with this agree the old Itala, the Vulgate, and
the quotations found in the Latin Fathers.
2. The Alexandrian, or Egyptian Edition;
with this agree the quotations found in the
works of Origen; and the Coptic Version.
3. The Byzantine, or Eastern Edition-
that in general use in Constantinople, after
this city had become the capital of the Eastern

Notwithstanding all the helps which the va- To these Michaelis adds a fourth, called, rious MSS. and ancient Versions afford for 4. The Edessene Edition, which comprethe illustration of the Sacred Text, the reader hends those MSS from which the Peshito, or must not imagine that in those MSS. and old Syriac Version, was made, though no Versions which do contain the tchole of the MS. of this edition now remains. The PhiSacred Text, there is any essential defect in loxenian Syriac Version was corrected from matters that relate to the faith and practice, MSS. found in the library at Alexandria. and, consequently, to the salvation, of the Any reading supported by the authority of Christian:--there is no such MS, there is no these different editions, possesses the highest such Version. So has the Divine Providence degree of probability; and may be, in genetakes have been committed by careless copy inspired penman. This is a general rule, to ists, as well as by careless printers, not one which there will be found very few excepessential truth of God has been injured or tions. suppressed. In this respect, all is perfect; The propriety of this classification is quesand the way of the Most High is made sótioned in a very able pamphlet just published by Dr. Richard Laurence, intituled, "Remarks on the Systematical Classification of MSS. adopted by Griesbach, in his Edition of the Greek Testament," " 8vo. Oxford, 1814. To this pamphlet I must refer the critical reader.

I shall now proceed to give an account of the most ancient Manuscripts and Versions which have been collated for the four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles.

creased, who professed to believe that these and Versions known to exist. Preparations writings were divinely inspiret. 4. Wherev-for such an edition of the Hebrew Bible have er the Jeics were dispersed, they carried co- been made by Kennicot and De Rossi. For pies of the Lae and the Prophets with thein; the Septuagint, by Wechel, (i. e. in the edition and the Christians did the same with the printed by him,) Lambert Bos, Dr. Holmes, Gospels, Epistles, &c. And as these copies and his present Continuators at Oxford. For were formed by skitful or unsiful hands, the Greek Testament, by Robert Stephens, so they would be less or more accurate in re- Bp. Fell, Dr. Mill, Bengel, Wetstein, Birch, ference to the originals, from which they Alter, Matthai, and Griesbach. We therefore were takea. 5. If a MS which had been possess, at present, materials from which Empire. The greater number of the many Carelessly copied, became the source whence early immaculate editions of the Sacred MSS. written by the monks on Mount Athos others were taken, they could not be expect-Writings may be formed; so that the Hebrew are evidently of this edition. To this edition ed to express a better text than was fomid in and Greek Originals, and, indeed, all Ver- may be referred the quotations found in St. that from which they were copied. 6. When sions faithfully deduced from them, may ap-Chrysostom, St. Theophylact, Bishop of Bul such a MS was collated with others mo e pear in all their simplicity, energy, and splen-garia, and the Slavonic or Russian Version. Carefully copied, various readings, or difdour. It is to these materials, as they exist The readings of this edition, are those which ferences between such MSS, wo ild necessa- in the above collections, that I am indebted are generally found in the printed text of the rily appear. 7. As some of these readings for the various readings of Hebrew and Greek Greek Testament. All these Recensiones, or would appear irreconcileable or contradicto- MSS., supported by the ancient Versions, | Editions, belong to ages prior to the eighth ry, subsequent scribes would alter or ament which I have introduced in these Notes. century, according to Griesbach. from conjecture, where they could not have access to the original MSS. and this would give birth to another class of various reulings. 8. When, after the invention of printing, the Sacred Writings were multiplied by means of the press, the copy, thus prepared, must be one of those MSS. or one containing a col lation of various MSS. and the printed edi. tion must, of course, give the text of one only MS or a text formed from the various read ings of several. 9. As, at the epoch of the in-ordered it, that although a number of mis-ral, fairly taken for the word written by the vention of printing, great ignorance prevailed both in literature and religion, it was not likely that the best helps, even had they been at hand, would have been critically used; and, therefore, those primitive editions must necessarily have beca, in many respects, im- plain, even in the poorest copies, that the way perfect; and these imperfections could only faring man, though a fool, utterly destitute of be removed in subsequient editions, by a care-deep learning and critical abilities, need not ful collation of the most ancient most auerr therein. thentic, and most correctly written MSS. All the omissions of the ancient Manu 10. As such MSS. exist in different places, scripts put together, would not countenance widely remote from each other, in various the omission of one essential doctrine of the parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, it must be Gospel, relative to faith or morals; and all a work of considerable time to find them out, the additions countenanced by the whole collate, and extract, their various readings; mass of MSS already collated, do not introcominunicate them to the public in separate duce a single point essential either to faith or elitions, or in critical dissertations; and manners, beyond what may be found in the III. Account of MSS. in Uncial characmuch time must necessarily elapse before most imperfect editions, from the Compluters, referred to by the letters ABCD, &c. in the public would feel the necessity of having tensian Editors down to the Elzevirs. And this Work-A. The Codex Alexandrinus, now one authentic edition of the original texts though for the beauty, emphasis, and critical in the British Museum, sent, in 1628, from Cyformed from such separate editions and criti-perfection of the letter of the New Testament,ril Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, by cal dissertations. 11. All Versions, or trans-ja new edition of the Greek Testament, form Sir Thomas Roe, as a present to Charles I. lations of the Scriptures into the language of ed on such a plan as that of Professor Gries- It is one of the most reputable MSS. known the different nations which had received the bach, is greatly to be desired; yet from such word of God as the rule of their faith and practice, must have been made, previously to the invention of printing, from a MS. or MSS. such as the translator had at hand; therefore, such Versioms could be no more than a faith- The multitude of various readings found ful translation of such MS, or MSS. 12 As in MSS. should no more weaken any man's the MSS. differ among themselves, from the faith in the Divine word, than the multitude reasons assigned above, so that different MSS. of typographical errors found in printed ediwould exhibit different readings in certain tions of the Scriptures. Nor, indeed, can it cases, though the text, in the main, was the be otherwise, unless God were to interpose, same in all; so the Versions must differ and miraculously prevent every scribe from among themselves, according to the particular making a false letter, and every compositor MSS from which they were taken. Hence, from mistaking a word in the text he was co-lows in the Gospels the Byzantine edition: both the MSS, and the Versions would neces-pying. It is enough that God absolutely presarily contain various readings; and these serves the whole truth, in such a way as is readings must be important and valuable, in consistent with his moral government of the proportion to their agreement with the auto world. The preservation of the jots and titgraph from which they were all originally de-fles in every transcriber's copy, and in every rived: and, upon the whole, the most ancient printer's form, by a miraculous act of AI- B. The Colex Vaticanus, No. 1200, containand carefully written MS might be consider mighty power, is not to he expected; and is ing the Greek Version of the Septuagint, ed as containing the purest text. 13. All the not necessary to the accomplishment of the which was published at Rome by Cardinal Versions of all countries differ, less or more, purposes of providence and grace. Caraffa, fol. 1587. The second volume of this among themselves; which is a proof that they On this subject, the intelligent reader will MS. contains the New Testament. It is a were formed from different MSS, and that be pleased with the opinion of that very emi- most ancient and valuable MS. and is supthose Versions exhibited the readings which nent critic Dr. Bentley; speaking in reference posed to be older than the Codex Alexandriwere contained in those MSS. 14. And it may to those who were needlessly alarmed at the ins; and to have been written some time in be added, that the most ancient Versions multitude of various readings collected by the fourth century, and before the time of St were likely to contain the purest text. be- Dr. Mill, and said to amount to 30,000, he says, Jerome: others refer it to the fifth or sixth cause made from the most ancient MSS. "Not frighted with the present 30,000 various century. It is now in the Royal Library at which, we may fairly presunie, were the readings, I, for my own part, and, as I believe, Paris. There is a remarkable agreement bemost accurate copies of the original; as, in many others, would not lament, if, out of the tween this MS. and the Codices D. and L., that case, the stream could not be rendered old MSS. yet untouched, 10,000 more were and it is supposed, as a whole, to be the most turbid, by a long and cirenitous flow from the faithfully collected: some of which, without correct MS we have. Michaelts prefers it fountain. This the reader may conceive to question, would render the text more beauti-greatly to the Codex Alexandrinus. have been the origin of various readings, both ful, just, and exact though of no consequence C. The Codex Ephraim. A MS. in the in the Manuscripts and ancient Verscans, pre- to the main of Religion: nay, perhaps wholly Royal Library in Paris, numbered formerly viously to the invention of printing. synonymous in the view of common readers; 1905, at present 9. The first part of it conMost copies of the Hebrew Bible have been and quite insensible in any modern Version."tains some of the smallest Greek works of St. taken from the sam. MSS. as the subsequent | Phillaleuth. Lipsiens. p. 90. Ephraim Syrus, under which was originally editions have generally copied the preceding After such a testimony as this, from one of written the whole of the Greek Bible. In the ones, with very little alteration in any thing the greatest scholars and critics of his age, it New Testament part, it is mutilated in a grea that could be considered essential to the text. variety of places, which may be seen in Mi The first editions of the Greek Testament, viz. chaelis's Lectures, Vol. II. p. 258. The Greek the Complutensian, and the first of Erasmus, Version of the Bible which occupied the first were taken from different MSS.; but these part of this MS, has been, as far as was possisources were, in general, not the most pure ble, wiped out with a sponge, to make way for and correct, as the text formed from them sufEphraim's works: a frequent custom where friendly proves: and hence, most succeeding parchment was scarce and dear. It is sup e litors have found it necessary to make a va- In the MSS. of the Greek Testament, critics posed by Wetstein to have been written early riety of alterations and amendments in the have noticed several which have an affinity in the sixth century. It is an invaluable MS., editions which they have published from such to each other. This affinity has been denomi- but is, through its great age and bad preserMS as they had the opportunity of collating nated famalia, family, by Bengel: Recensio, vation, almost illegible. See P. Hence, very few of these editions agree per- Revision, by Griesbach: and Edition, by fectly among themselves; consequently, the Michaelis These editions depend on the di-sis. It contains the Greek text of the four necessity of forming one general and authen-versity of time and place; and are divided by tie elition, from a careful, judicious and con- Griesbach into three: scientious collation of all the ancient MSS 1. The Western Edition, or that formerly

a one Infidelity can expect no help; false
doctrine no support; and even frue Religion
no accession to its excellence; though a few
beams may be thus added to its lustre.

is hoped that no minor person will hazard
a contrary assertion; and that prejudices
against the collation of MSS. and collections
of various readings, will not be entertained
by the honest and well-meaning: as such
may see at once, both the propriety and ne-
cessity of such measures,

to exist; and is stated to have been written so early as the fourth century; though others assign it a much later date, and bring it so low as the seventh. Besides the New Testament, it contains the Septuagint Version of the Old, formerly edited by Dr. Grabe. A facsimile of the New Testament part has been published by Dr. Wolde, London, 1786, fol. And lately, a fac-simile of the Psalms, by the Rev. H. H. Baber, of the British Museum, fol. 1812, who is now preparing the Pentateuch for the press.

It is worthy of remark, that this MS folin the Epistles of St. Paul, the Alexandrine: and in the Acts and Catholic Epistles, the Western edition. With this MS. the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic Versions, have a remarkable coincidence.

D. The Coder Beza, or Codex CantabrigienGospels and Acts of the Apostles, with the old Itala, or Antehieronymifan Latin Version. Wetstein thinks that it is the very copy from

Account of Manuscripts



which Thomas Charkel, or Heraclius, under importance; and it is judged by Michaelis to
the auspices of Philoxenius, formed the later be one of the most valuable MSS. we pos-
Syriac Version, commonly called the Phi
loxenian: but this is a groundless suppost-
tion. This MS. is supposed by Wetstein to
be of the fifth century: others think it two
centuries earlier. A splendid and correct
fac-simile of the MS. has been printed at
Cambridge, by Dr. Kipling, 1793, 2 vols. royal

M. Coder Regius. This MS. contains the four Gospels; belongs to the Royal Library, Paris, numbered 48, and was written in the tenth century.

N. Cotex Vindobonensis, 2. One of the Vienna MSS. It contains only fragments of the book of Genesis, and of Luke, chap. xxiv. v. 13-21, 39-49, and was written in the seventh century.

O. A small fragment of some other MS., and contains the parable of the Pharisee and

P. Coder Guelpherbytanus, A. One of the Duke of Wolfenbuttie's MSS. It is what is called a Codex Rescriptus, i. e. a book, the original writing or which has been sponged out, to make way for some other works; which, in this case, happen to be the works of Isidorus Hispalensis. It contains fragments of the four Evangelists, and was written about the sixth century. See under C.

The readings in this MS. frequently agree with the Latin Versions before the time of St. Jerome, and with the Vulgate. Some have argued that it has been altered from those Latin Versions: but Semler, Michaelis, Gries-Publican. bach, and Dr. Herbert Marsh, have amply refuted all those arguments. It is one of the oldest MSS. extant; many of the readings by which it is distinguished are found in the Syriac, Coptic, Sahidic, and margin of the Philoxenian Syriac Version. In the main, this is the most important MS. we have of the Gospels and Acts; and though it has been written at different times, by different hands, yet the original parts may be safely supposed Q Coder Guelpherbytanus, B. Another of to exhibit the genuine readings of the evan- the Wolfenbuttle MSS, containing fragments gelic and apostolic text, in a larger proportion of Luke and John, written in the sixth centhan in any other MS. extant. I have my tury. It is a Codex Re-criptus, like the forself examined this MS. in the public library mer; the original writing being sponged out, at Cambridge; and am convinced not only of to make way for the works of Isidorus lisIts very high antiquity, but of its great ex- palensis, as in Codex P. cellency. Every where in my Notes, I have R. Tubinginse Fragmentum. This MS, endeavoured to pay particular attention to the which is preserved at Tubing, contains only readings of this MS. Whiston, in his primi-a fragment of the first chapter of John. tive New Testament, Stamford and London, S. Codex Vaticanis, No. 354. One of the 8vo. 1745, has translated the four Gospels and Vatican MSS, written in the year 919. Acts literally from the Colex Beza. T. Fragmentum Borgianum. It consists (D.) In St. Paul's Epistles, signifies the fof about twelve leaves; begins with John vi mous Codex Claromontanus; it was written 23, and ends with vii. 23. It is divided into in the sixth or seventh century, and has the Itala Version, as well as the Greek Text E. Coder Basiliensis, Num. B. VI. A MS, of the ninth century: it contains the four Gospels.

(E) In the Acts of the Apostles, signifies the famous Laud MS. No. 3. preserved in the Bodleian library. It has both the Greek and Latin text; the Latin evidently altered to make it correspond to the Greek. This MS. was printed by Hearne, 8vo. Oxon. 1715. Wetstein supposed it to have been written in Sardinia, about the seventh century. The MS. is written in two columns; the Latin text first: each line is composed of one word, very rarely of two; and the Latin and Greek words are always opposite to each other, which shows that it was written for the use of a person little skilled in either language. F. Coler Boreeti. This MS, which contains the four Gospels, formerly belonged to Sir John Boreel, Dutch Ambassador at the court of King James L. Where it now is cannot be ascertained.

two columns; the first contains the Greek
text, the second, the Coptic or Sahidic; and is
supposed by Georgi, who has published a
large quarto volume on it, to have been writ-
ten in the fourth century. This fragment is
a valuable specimen of the Alexandrian edi-

V. Coder Equitis Nanii Venetiis. This is
one of the MSS. collated by Birch, for his edi-
tion of the Greek Testament. It was written
in the tenth or eleventh century,

X. A MS in the public library of Ingolstad; this is in uncial characters, and has a com mentary in small letters. It appears to have been written in the eleventh century.

These are all the Greek MSS. in square or uncial characters, which are referred to in Wetstein and Griesbach; and which are quoted in these notes on the four Gospels and Acts. Where any of these letters appear with an asterisk, as C, it signifies that the reading there quoted, exists not in the text, but in the margin, of that manuscript. The MSS. marked A. B. C. D. E. F. G. K. and L. are (F.) Is one of the Coistinian MSS. No. 1. probably, upon the whole, the best; and It contains the Septuagint Version of the Oc-their readings, the most authentic of all the tateuch; and verses 24 and 25 of Acts, chap. ix. It was written in the eighth century. F. In the Epistles of St. Paul, denotes the Codex Augiensis, written about the ninth century, and now in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge.

uncial MSS.

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It is generally supposed that the Christian religion was planted in Ethopia or Abyssi nia, so early as the times of the apostles; but when the Scriptures were translated into the Ethiopic language, is not certainly known. We have the whole of the New Testament in that language; and it is supposed that this version was made by Frumentius, a Chris tian Bishop, în the fourth century. It is, in very many respects, an important version; and seems to have been made inmediately from the Greek text Its various readings agree with the (A.) the Codex Alexandrinus, and with Origen.


There are different Arabic versions of the New Testament, and they were, probably, as Dr. Marsh conjectures, derived from these four sources-1. Some from the Syriac; 2. Some from the Coptic: 3. Some from the Greek; 4. And some from the Vulgate. When this version was made cannot be determined; but it is generally allowed that there was no Arabic version of the New Tes tament before the time of Mohammed, i. c. A. D. 620; and that the oldest versions we have of that language, were made between the seventh and tenth centuries. But, if this were really so, how can we well account for the knowledge which Mohammed had of the Gospels, which he terms Anjeel, from Evangelium, in different parts of the Koran; see particularly Surat iii. v. 3, which Anjeel, he there mentions, as having come down from God, as well as the 3 toorat man the lair, and his own Koran; and in this same Surat, and many others, he makes seve ral quotations from the Gospels; and, though he models them, to cause them to suit his own purpose, yet his quotations afford a presumptive evidence that the Gospels did exist in Arabic before his time; unless we could suppose he read them in Greek, Syriae, or Latin; and none, even of his own partial fol lowers, have pretended that he understood There are many other MSS. written in those languages. As to the story of his having small letters, and quoted by Griesbach and an apostate Christian Monk, called Sergius, others, by Arabic numerals, víz. 1, 2, 3, &c., with him, who might have supplied him with which, though not equally ancient with seve such quotations, it remains yet to be proved. ral of those in uncial characters, are of great To me, it seems probable, that a version of G. Codex Wolfius A. This is no one of value and importance, and exhibit readings | the Gospels at least did exist before the the the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum; of equal worth with those in the preceding of Mohammed; as Christianity did undoubt and is marked 5684. It contains the four MSS. These, however, I have rarely monedly more its way into Arabia, even in the Evangelists, and was probably written before tioned by name in my notes, and only refer days of the apostles, as may be gathered from the tenth century. It is a correct and valua-to them in this way: eg Acts xvii. 25, the Acts of the Apostles, chap i and from ble MS. "ABDE. and more than forty others." Ib. various other testimonies. Whosoever reads G. Coder Bornerianus in the Electoral Li- xx. 24, "ABD. some others," &c. &c. 1 the Koran carefully over, in reference to this brary at Dresden. It has the Itala Version in-thought it was unnecessary to be more par- point, will probably find reason to draw the terlined with the Greek text. ticular; as those who could proft most by same conclusion. such information, would naturally have There are three principal editions of the Griesbach at hand; and, by referring to Arabic, to which reference is made by Grieshim, would be able to obtain much more bach, and in these notes: 1. That printed at satisfaction on the point, than the plan on Rome, fol. 1591, which was probably made which my notes were constructed could pos- from the Greek 2. The version printed in sibly afford. It is necessary just to state that the Paris and London Polyglotts; but in the both Wetstein and Griesbach, by quoting dif latter with additions and corrections. This ferent MSS by the same letter, in the four also was made from the Greek, and not fam H. Coder Coistinianus, No. 202, consists parts into which they have divided the New the Syriac or Coptic, as some have supposed. only of fifteen leaves, containing some frag Testament, viz. the four Gospels, the Acts 3. The edition printed by Erpen, Lug. Pat. ments of St. Paul's Epistles. It was written and Catholic Episties, the Epistles of St. Paul, | 1616, 4to. taken from two Mss one of the in the fifth or sixth century. and the Apocalypse, have produced strange Go pele written about 4. D. 1971, and an1. Codex Cottonianus. This MS. contains and needless conftision: in of those other, of the Acts, Epistles and Revelation, only four leaves, in which a few fragments parts we find a distinct notation of MSS. On dated A D. 1342. See Dr. Marsh's notes to of Matthew and John are found. It is written this subject Michaelis has justly observed, Michaelts, Vol. III p. 603. This version is 01 Egyptian paper of a purple colour; and is that "Wetstein has made it very difficult to supposed to have been formed immediately a nong the Cotton MSS. in the British Muse-remember his notation of MSS. by not re- from the Greek; but interpolated in many um, and is marked Titus C. 15. taining the same marks throughout the whole places from the Syriac. This of Erpen is the K. Colex Cyprius, so called, because work; for his letters and figures have a dif- most valuable and genuine edition of the Arabrought from the island of Cyprus. It is at ferent meaning in the Epistles of St. Pani bie Testament. These three editions are quopresent in the Roval Library at Paris. It from that which they have in the four Evan- ted in Griesbach, and in the following notes. contains the four Evangelists; agrees in its gelists; a still different meaning in the Ca- The first, Ar. Rom. the Arabic Gospels, various readings with A. B. C. D. Montfau- tholic Epistles, and Acts of the Apostles: printed at Rome, in 1591 2 Ar. Pol the con supposes it to be of the eighth century; and, lastly, they are taken in a fourth sense, Arabic, printed in the London Polyglott, 1657. Father Simon of the ninth. in the book of the Revelation."-Lectures, 3. Erp. the Arabic New Testament, printed L. Coder Regius, 62. This very valuable Vol. II. p. 185-6. This perplexity may appear by Erpen, in 1616. When all these editions MS. was one of those used by R. Stephens, evident, even in the uncial MSS., and much agree in the same reading. Griesbach signi.ies for his edition of the Greek Testament, fol more in the others, . g. D. which means the it by Arr, and I mean the same in these notes, 1550, in which it is marked 7. It is in the Coler Beza in the Gospels and Acts, means when I say, ell the Arab ́e. Royal Library at Paris, No. 62, and was proba-the Clermont MS. In the Epistles of St. Paul; bly written in the eighth or ninth century and B. the Coler Vaticanus 1209, in the Gos The various readings of this MS. are of great pels, Acts, and Epistles, is the Calex Monacho

(G.) In the Acts, &c. signifies a MS. In the library of the Augustin Friars at Rome. It has been only partially collated by Blanchini and Birch.

H. Codex Wolfius B. This MS is very similar to the preceding, and was probably written in the same century. It also contains the four Evangelists.

THE ARMENIAN. This version was probably made in the fifth century, or about the year 410; according to

Account of different Versions

the Armenians themselves. The author is universally allowed to have been Miesrob, the same who invented the Armenian alpha bet. It appears to have heen first male from the Syriac; but having been twice translated from that language, it was last of all translated from the Greek. This is allowed by learnel men to be a very valuable version; and contains various readings of great importance: but it has not as yet been accurately collated.


of the New Testament Marsh's notes to Michaelis. This is the most fat, Luke xix. 9. "Jesus said to the multitude, likely of all the conjectural emendations of and to his disciples, To day indeed there is St. Augustin's text yet inade. This ancient a great salvation to this house, because this Latin version, by whatever name it is called, man is of the sons of Abraham." That is, he is supposed to be the same which is annexed is saved through Abraham's merit, and his to the Greek text in the Codex Boernerianus, own alms-giving; so I understand the intenClar montanus, and Cantabrigiensis. But tion of the original. besides these, there are more than twenty others which Griesbach has noted in his Greek Testament, which contain the same version, or rather a version or versions made fore the time of St. Jerome. See the cata The sacred writings were translated into logue of thein in Griesbach's Testament, the Bohemian language by eight Bohintan Vol. I. Prolegom. page xcvii. All these I have Matt. xxvii. 52. is thus rendered, And the doctors, who had been sent to Wittemberg quoted under the general name Itala, or An- graves were opened, and the rocks rent, ad Basil to study the original langttages for teeronymian, without specifying the difus asas and the bodies of ma this purpose. This translation was printed.ferent MSS. in which the reading is contain-ny saints who had suffered martyrdom, rose in Moravia, in the year 1539. I know nothinged,e. g. Six copies of the Itala-several copies from their graves. All these examples, (and of the merit of this version: Griesbach has of the Itala-all the Itala, &c. The principal their number might be easily increased) show given a few readings from it, which he re-fragments of this version which still remain, ceived from Professor Dobrowsky, of Mos




The Coptic was the common langttage of Egypt before the invasion of the Saracens; it is a mixture of the old Egyptian and the Greek Into this language the Scriptures ap pear to have been translated at a very early period: probably between the third and fifth centuries. The readings of this version are allowed to have a striking affinity to those of the Latin version; and sometimes to those of the Codex Beze; and, according to Wetstein, with Origen, Eusebius, Cyril, and the Alex

andrian MSS. See Sahidic.


have been carefully collected by Sabatier, in
his Bibliorum Sacrorum Latina Versiones
Antique, tol. Rom. 1743, three vols.; and by
Blanchini, in his Evangeliorum Quadru
pix Latinee Versionis Antique seu Italice,
fol. Rom. 1749, four vols. The various read
edited by these learned men, and in the wri-
ings of these versions, both in those MSS.
tings of the Latin Fathers, are of great utility
in ascertaining the readings of the ancient
Greek text, from which they were made; for
many excellent readings abound in these
versions, which agree not only with the most
versions, particularly the Syriac and the
ancient Greek MSS. but also with the best
Coptic. It was out of these versions that St.
Jerome formed the Vulgate. See Vulgate.

The people to whom the version called Gothic, belonged, had their ancient habitation to the east of the Borysthenes: but wander New Testament in Persian. Hitherto we have We have no very ancient version of the ing westward, they settled in Wallachia. Ulphilas, a Cappadocian by birth, who lived had only the four Gospels in this language, under the emperors Valens and Valentinian, which are printed with the Latin translation made this translation immediately from the of Dr. Samuel Clarke, in the fifth volume of Greek, (though occasionally in reference to the London Polyglott. This translation was the Latin versions,) about the middle of the finished about the year 1341, by Simon ibn fourth century. Of this version only a muti Yuseph ibn Abraheem al Tabreezy who is lated copy of the four Gospels, and a few chap said to have taken it immediately from the ters of St. Paul's Epistic to the Romans, re-Syriac. This version was made, most evi main. This MS, which was all written in dently, by a Christian of the Roman Catholic silver letters, and hence called Coder Argen- persuasion, who acted under the most predoteus, was first discovered in the abbey of minating influence of his own peculiar creed; Werden, in Westphalia; it got afterward to for it is not only interpolated with readings Sweden, then to the Netherlands; and is from the Vulgate, but with readings from rinow in the university of Upsal. A fine edituals and legends. The Persian Gospels do tion of the Gothic Gospels was published by not appear to have been carefully collated by Marshall, together with the Anglo-Saxon, at Mill, Wetstein, or Griesbach, scarcely any of Dort, 1665, 4to. with a glossary by Junius: the many peculiarities of this version having but a better edition was published by Dr. E. been noticed. To satisfy myself of its nature Lye, Oxon. 1750, 410. The fraginents of the and origin, I have read the whole of it over eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and trice, and shall extract from the remarks fifteenth chapters to the Romans, edited by then made such proofs as appeared to me to Knittel, from the Wolfenbuttle MS., may be warrant its Catholic origin; and how little found at the end of Vol. II of Dr. Lye's Saxon, the translator regarded the text on which he

Gothic, and Latin Dictionary.

THE ITALA, OR ANTEHIERONYMIAN. Previously to the time of St. Jerome, a great variety of Latin versions of parts or the



formed his version. e. g.
Mitigation of punishment promised to Tyre
and Sidon in the day of judgment.

The supremacy of Peter most formally as serted, and the text corrupted to support it: And I say unto thee, was

سبنك و لنبان عليا من بره عمارت کدل شنود

Thou art the rock of my religion (that is, a
stone) and the foundation of my church
shall be a building upon thee, Matt. xvi 18.

There is a remarkable addition, Matt. xxvi. 75. which is found in no other version, nor in any MS. and is not noticed by Griesbach. And he (Peter) went out from thence, and wept bitterly, and his sin was forgiven him

the family from whence this version sprang; and how little regard, in all these cases, was paid to the Syriac, from which it is said to have been taken; or, indeed, to any other version; for these, and such like renderings, are evidently made to serve a party, and sup port a creed. From all this, it appears that this version; and that its various readings, much dependance cannot be safely placed on except where they agree with more authentic versions, are worthy of little credit.

There is a second Persian version of the four Gospels, which Mr. Abraham Wheeloc, professor of Arabic in the University of Cam for the press, and actually began to print in bridge, translated into Latin, and prepared 1652; but dying shortly after, it was patronized by Thomas Adams, Lord Mayor of London, and finished under the care of Mr. Pierseems that Mr. Wheeloc had designed to affix son, at the press of J. Flesher, 1657, fol. It critical notes to each chapter; and this we find done to the end of the seventeenth chapter of Matthew, about which time it is likely he died; for Mr. Pierson, the continuator of his work, says, initio operis, præmatura morte ereptus: death snatched him away at the commencement of his work. And as the regular comment of Mr. Wheeloc appears to have been prepared no farther than to the seventeenth chapter of Matthew, the notes which the continuator found after the close of that chapter, and which, most probably, Wheeloc designed to be the foundation of more diffuse observations, are all printed at the conclusion of the work.

It appears that neither Wheeloc nor Wai ton knew of more than three MSS. of the Persian Gospels; one of Oxford, one of Cambridge, and one belonging to Dr. Pocock. It has been supposed, I think, without sufficient evidence, that Wheeloc compiled his Persian text from these three MSS. After carefully collating both this and Walton's edition, in many places, I think I may safely state, that Wheeloc printed his edition from the Oxford MS. as Walton printed his from that of Po"Now I say unto you, O cities, hat in the day cock. In a few cases, he introduces in brackthere shall be repose, which shall not be to from the Cambridge MS rarely from that of of judgment, to Tyre and Sidon, Jets, or with an asterisk, a various reading Pocock: but in his comment or critical notes, you." Matt. xi. 22. he refers often to both these MSS. giving the most remarkable readings where they differ from the Oxford MS., which he has most evidently followed as his text. That the MSS. of Pocock, from which Mr. Wheeloc gives the principal various readings, was the same which Walton printed in the fifth volume of of those various readings extracted by Wheethe Polyglott, is demonstrable from a collation loc from the Pocock MS. which are found to be precisely the same with those in the text and rubrics of that printed in the Polyglott. And that Wheeloc took the Oxford MS. for his readings are extracted only from the Camtext, is evident from this, that his various bridge and Pocock MSS. collated with that of Oxford. The text, therefore, of Wheeloc, is not a corrupted text, or one made up from much purer than that in the Polyglott, and different MSS. It is much more simple and appears to have been made by one not warped In Luke ii. 7. the blessed Virgin is called by any religious system, as Al Tabreezy certainly was; and by one who better under. Mareem pak, Saint Mary. The title to the paragraph, Luke v. 18, &c. stood the genius and composition of the Peris "The raising of that paralytic person who sian language.-As far as I have had the ophad lain 32 years. Ni LiveUxportunity of examining this version, it ap

to Peter, which the translator probably
To weaken the reproof given by our Lord
thought too degrading, the offensive epithet
Satan is omitted, Matt. xvi. 23.

sugeelis S From whence thou
And in verse 48, he translates the same pas-
shalt never find redemption.

chole of both the Old and New Testaments, had been made by different persons for their own use; and these appear to have been as various as the skill and talents of the translators. As none of these have been received into public use in the church, so it is not likely that they had any particular name: but modern times have given the title of Italac, Itala, or Antehieronymian, to all such Latin versions. Though the word Itala be of the most dubious authority, yet all allow that by it, very ancient Latin translation is intended; but how such a translation became thus de: nominated, no person can tell: if, indeed, it have had any such title in ancient times. Jesus turned back, and said unto Peter, This title is supposed to be mentioned by St. Get behind me, ! O thou unbeliever Augustin, where, speaking of the great va-here their worm dieth not and the fire is Popish saying about hell, Mark ix. 46. for, riety of Latin versions in early use, he says, not quenched, Al Tabreezy translates, 5 In ipsis autem interpretationibus Itala, cate ris præferatur; nam est verborum tenacior who bull Because from cum perspicuitate sententia. "Among the thence liberation is impossible. versions, the Itala is to be preferred, as being more literal, and more perspicuous." De Doctr. Christ. lib. ii. cap. 11. Dr. Lardner Furposes that Itala here, is a mistake for et illa, and reads the passage thus: "and among the translations let that be preferred which is most literai and most perspicuous." Dr. Bentley, and some others, were nearly of the same mind. Potter thinks that Itala is ar early mistake for usitata, which mistake may be accounted for thus: in ancient times, when MSS. were written in uncial charac ters, without distinction of words and sentences, a copyist having written:-INIPSISAU repentance for the purchase of the remission Doctrine of the merit of good works and TEM.NTERPRETATIONIBUSUSITATACAETERIS of sins. And I say unto thee, that as a recomPRAEFERATURNAMESTVERBORUMTENACIOR pense (e awaz) for what she has done, CUMPERSPICUITATESENTENTIAE; took the her sins, which are many, are forgiven; for first syllable of usitata, on returning to his that very cause, that she was worthy of much, MS for the last syllable of the word interpre- or has much merit. But lit tationibus, which he had just written, and of tle shall be forgiven to him, who has little course read the word itata, which he con- merit, Luke vii. 47. The same doctrine is cluded to be an error for iala; and hence taught chap. xvi. 9. came the present spurious reading." See Dr.

whose name iras Alekudemus.

he approached the gate, he saw a dead man,
Lk. vii. 12. Prayer for the dead. "And when
whom they were carrying out,
with prayer and lamentation."

The doctrine of supererogation is glanced

pears to me to be taken verbatim from the some, or the Syriac, as others, have supposed. Latin Vulgate, and not from the Greek, as

Jeronymo Xavier, missionary to the Indians, was commanded by the emperor Akbar that he might examine their importance as a to translate the four Gospels into Persian, system of religion. Xavier undertook this work, and by the assistance of a person named Moulance Aboos Sitar, a native of Lahoor, made a history of the life of our Lord, compiled out of the Gospels, and from popish legends, and presented it to the emperor in 1602, who is said to have smiled at it: and well he might, as the genuine history was disgraced with fables. The MS. formed for

Various Versions.

the emperor's use is now before me; but such a version can be of no importance in Biblical Criticism. The work of Xavier was published with a translation and notes by L. De Dieu. THE SAHIDIC.

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patriarch of the Maronite Christians, in the much still remains to be done. The text year 1552, to Pope Julius III to acknowledge, should be settled by a further collation of the in the name of the Syrian church, the supre-most ancient MSS. When this is done, the macy of the Roman pontiff; and to have the Latin church may be vindicated in that boastNew Testament printed in Europe. The eming in the Vulgate, which at present, is but Upper Egypt, or the part that lies between peror Ferdinand I. bore the expense of the incautiously applied to this version. Canira and Assuan, had a particular dialect, impression, and Albert Widmanstad, in con- I have often quoted this version, which I which in many respects differed from that Junction with Moses and Postel, edited the consider to be equal to a MS. of the fourth spoken in Lower Egypt. As this Upper Egypt work; which was printed at Vienna, 1555, 4to. century. I must, however, add, that with all was called in Arabic sacel, the dialect This edition, from which all succeeding edi- its imperfections, there is nothing essential to has been called Sahidic. See Michelis. At tions have been taken, contains the four Gos- the faith n practice of a genuine Christian, a very early period, a translation of the Newpels, the Acts, all St. Paul's Epistles, the first that may not be proved by it; but it certainly Testament was made into this dialect; but Epistle of John, the first of Peter, and the can never come into competition with the ori the remains of this venerable version have Epistle of James. The second and third of ginal Greek text; nor, indeed, with several long been confined to perishing MSS till John are wanting; the second of Peter, the of the ancient versions. Munter published some fragments of the Epis- Epistle of Jude, and the Revelation. None tles of Paul to Timothy, 4to. Hafnire, 1739. of these is acknowledged by any copy of the And Georgius, in the same year, printed at ancient Syriac version. This version was Rome, a fragment of the Gospel of John, in made probably between the second and third the same dialect; which the reader will find centuries. describe under Codex T. in the account of the MSS. in uncial characters.

The Philoxenian, we have seen, was made in the beginning of the sixth century, by Po Dr. Wolde, late of the British Museum, had lycarp, the rural bishop of Philoxenus, or prepared an edition of several fragments, con Xenyas, bishop of Mabug; and we find that taining about one third of the New Testa Thamas of Charkel, or Heraclea, about the ment, which he did not live to finish: but the year 616, corrected this version and compared task has been ably executed by Dr. Ford, of it with some principal MSS. in the AlexanOxford, who has printed it at the Clarendon drian library; hence it has been called the press, 1799, fol. as an Appendix to the Coler Heraclean, as well as the Philoxenian verAlexan trinus, by Dr. Wolde. This work, sion. This version has been printed from which is done with elegance and correctness, Dr. Ridley's MSS. by Dr. White of Oxford, has three copper plates, on which there are 4to. 1778, &c. The Philoxenian version connineteen far similes of the MSS from which tains all the canonical books of the New Tes Dr. Ford has printed these fragments. In tanient, even those omitted by the Peshito carefully considering this venerable version, version, from which it differs not only in the there appear to be arguments to prove its very language, but in many other respects. Those high antiquity, which Dr. Woide refers even who wish for further information on this to the beginning of the second century. The point, must consult Michaelis's Lectures, parts already published exhibit some invalu- Vol. II. p. 1, &c. and the notes of his learned able readings; and these prove that it has a annotator. Dr. Herbert Marsh. striking affinity to the Codex Beza. It is THE VULGATE. doubtless one of the oldest versions in exis- We have already seen, under the article tence; and it is to be hoped that every frag-Itala, that in the earliest ages of Christianity, ment of it will be collected and published, the New Testament had been translated into till, if possible, we get the whole of the New Latin. These translations were very nume Testament in this most ancient and invalurous, and having been made by a variety of able version. The Coptic and Sahidic are in-hands, some learned, and others not so; they dependent versions, both made from the not only disagreed among themselves, but Greek, and probably at different times; and appeared, in certain cases, to contradict each both contain different readings. See Coptic.

other. This induced Pope Damasus to emTHE SAXON, OR ANGLO-SAXON. ploy St. Jerome, one of the most learned of It is said that Alfred the Great translated the primitive Latin Fathers, to correct the anthe greater part of the New Testament into cient Itala. Though, in the Old Testament, the Anglo-Saxon. The four Gospels in this he is supposed simply to have collated the language were published under the direction Itala with the Hebrew, yet in the New he of Archbishop Parker, with a dedication to asserts, Novum Testamentum Græca fidei Queen Elizabeth, by Mr. John Fox, the Mar- reddidi, "I have translated the New Testatyrologist, 4to. London, 1571. William Lisle ment according to the original Greek." Howpublished fragments of the Old and New Tes-ever, it appears, that in many cases he altered tament, London, 4to. 1638. Mr. T. Marshall the Itala for the worse, as the remaining frag published the Gospels with the Meso-Gothic ments of that version sufficiently testify. version, Dodrecht, 4to. 1665, which was re- This important work, which, in process of printed at Amsterdam in 1684. See Gothic time, supplanted the Itala, was finished A. D. The Saxon version appears to have been made 394, and was called Versio Vulgata, the Vulgate, from MSS of the old Itala version, (see Itala,) or Common Version, because received into ge some time in the seventh or eighth century. neral use. No version of the Sacred Writings See the account in the General Preface to the was more generally received than this; and Book of Genesis. From this version I have copies of it were multiplied beyond calcula made many extracts, in these notes; as maytion. And perhaps scarcely any book has be seen in different parts of the four Gospels. been more corrupted by frequent and careless The use I have made of Thwaite's Octateuch, transcription, than the Vulgate, from the year may be seen in the notes on the five Books of 384, till the invention of printing, about the Moses. No part of the New Testament, De-middle of the fifteenth century. The first sides the four Gospels, has been published in edition of this version was printed by Gutthis language.

tenburg and Fust, at Mayence, in large fol. THE SLAVONIAN, OR RUSSIAN. sine titulo, et sine ulla nota, somewhere heThis version, the importance of which in tween 1450 and 1457. By the order of Pope the criticism of the New Testament, has been Sixtus Quintus, a complete edition of the but lately known, was made in the ninth cen- Vulgate was printed at Rome in 1588, but not tury, by two brothers, Methodius and Cyril, published till 1593. This, though stamped natives of Thessalonica, and apostles of the with the infallible authority of the pope, aposSlavonians. It was taken immediately from tolica nobis a Domino, tradita auctoritate; the Greek, of which it is a litera! version, and to be the authentic Vulgate, which he styles first printed in 1581. In the Catholic epistles, perpetuo valituram constitutionem, a decree and in the Apocalypse, it agrees generally that shall for ever remain in force; yet, on with the Codex Alexandrinus. It is remark-examination, it was found to be so excessively able, that of the readings which Griesbach erroneous and self-contradictory, that anohas adopted in his edition of the Greek Tes-ther corrected edition was undertaken by the tament, the Slavonian version has at least authority of Pope Clement VIII. widely differ three fourths. Where the united evidence of ing from that of Sixtus. This is the edition ancient MSS. is against a common reading, from which all those were formed which are the Slavonian agrees with these MSS. There now in common use.

is ample proof that it has not been altered, I have already stated that copies of this ver-
from either the Vulgate, or any other version.sion have been often corrupily transcribed,
The learned Dobrowsky has given an excel-and hence the amazing disagreement be-
lent description of this version, an extract tween different MSS. This version being so
from which may be seen in Dr. Marsh's much in request, and so many persons being
Notes to Michaelis, V., III. p. 634. As it appears
that this version has been taken from anci-
ent and valuable Greek MSS. it deservesto be
better known and more carefully colated.


copyers by trade, in order to save time and vellum, they wrote the words in contractions wherever it was possible: and by this means the original reading, in various instances, was lost. All these causes conspired, with the There are two principal versions which go ignorance of the original tongues, which alunder this name. 1. The Peshito, which sig-most universally prevailed in the middle ages, nifies iteral or correct, and is the most an- in the Latin church, to bring this venerable cient, and the most important. 2 That which is called Philoxenian, from Philoxenes, bishop of Hierapolis or Mabug; who employed Polycarp, his rural bishop, to make this version, which he finished A. D. 508.

The Peshito was first known in Europe by Moses of Mardin; who was sent by Ignatius,

An account of versions, as far as concerns the Old Testament, may be seen in the General Preface to the Book of Genesis. I have sometimes quoted these versions collectively, with VV. by which I mean the versions in general

An Alphabetical List of the Primitive Fathers and Ecclesiastical Works referred to in the various Readings quoted occasionally in these Notes.

Ambrosius, Archbishop of Milan, born A. D. 340; died A. D. 397.-Ambrosius, deacon of Alexandria, and intimate friend of Origen, died A. D. 250.--Ambrosiaster: this writer is supposed to be author of a commentary on St. Paul's Epistles; and to have flourished about A. D. 354.-Athanasius, was bishop of Alexandria, A. D. 326; died in 375.-Athena goras, a Christian philosopher of Athens, flourished in A. D. 178.

Basil the Great, bishop of Cesarea, born in Cappadocia, A.D. 329; died 379.-Basil, bishop of Seleucia, flourished in 450.-Bede the Ve nerable, born at Wermouth, in the diocese of Durham, A. D. 673-Clemens Alexandrinus, Clement of Alexandria, the preceptor of Origen, died A. D. 220.- Clémens Romanus, Clement of Roine, supposed to have been fellow labourer with Peter and Paul, and bishop of Rome, A. D. 91.

Chromatius, bishop of Aquileia, and friend of St. Jerome, flourished about A. D. 370.-- Chronicon Pascale, the Paschal Chronicle: this Chronicle extends from the creation to the twentieth year of Heraclius, A. D. 630. ——— Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, born A. D. 344; died 407.-Constitutions of the Apostles, certain canons for the government of the Christian church, formed at different times, and certainly long posterior to the times of the apostles.-Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, in 248: was martyred A. D. 258.Cyrillus Alexandrinus. This Cyril was patriarch of Alexandria A. D. 412; died 444.-. Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus, Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem, was born A. D. 315; died 386. Damascenus Joannes, John of Damascus, born about A. D. 676.--Dionysius Alexandrinus, Dionysius, patriarch of Alexandria, flourished in 247-Dionysius Areopagita, Dionysins, the Areopagite, falsely so called, flourished about A. D. 490.

Ephraim Syrus, Ephraim the Syrian, was
deacon of Elessa, and died about A. D. 379.
-Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, horn about
A. D. 320.-Eusebius, bishop of Antioch, fou-
rished in 331.-Euthalius: this wiiter fou-
rished about A. D. 458, and wrote a critical
work on the Acts of the Apostles. He is
supposed to have been bishop of Sulca, in
Egypt-Euthymius Zigabenus, a monk
who flourished in the treelfth century.
Gaudentius, bishop of Brescia, flourished in
410.-Gregory the Great, bishop of Rome,
flourished in 590.-Gregory Thaumaturgus,
was a disciple of Origen, and bishop of Neo
casarea in 240.--Gregory Nazianzen, born
A. D. 328; died 389.-Gregory Nyssen, born
in Cappadocia, A. D. 331; died 396.
Hieronymus. See Jerome.-Hilary Picta-
vensis, Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, flourish.
ed A. D. 350.-Hippolytus, a Christian oishop,
flourished A. D. 230.

Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, was martyred
about A. D. 107.-Irenæus, disciple of Poly.
carp; born in Greece about A. D. 150, martyr
ed 202--Isidore, of Pelusium, flourished in 431.
Jerome, one of the most eminent of the Latin
Fathers; author of the translation of the
Scriptures called the Vulgate; born about
A. D. 342; and died 420.-Justin Martyr, a
Christian Philosopher, martyred A. D. 167.—
Juvencus, one of the first Christian poets,
fourished about A. D. 329.
Lucifer Calaritanus, Lucifer, bishop of Cag
liari, in Sardinia, died A. D. 370,
Mararius, an Egyptian monk, born at Alex
andria, A. D. 300.-Maximus, à native of Con
stantinople: he died about A. D. 652-Maxi
mus Taurinensis, Maximus of Touars,
A. D. 662.

Nonnus, flourished in A. D. 410, and wrote a
paraphrase of St. John's Gospel, in Greek hex-


version into a state of great imperfection;
from which it has not as yet wholly emerged.
I have several MSS. of this work, written
from the twelfth to the fifteenth century,
which are exceedinglydiscordant among thein-Opus Imperfectum. an ancient unfinished
selves. Pope Clement VIII has certainly done Commentary on St. Matthew's Gospel, wit
much to restore it to its primitive purity; but ten about A. D. 560.--Origen, one of the most


eminent of the Greek Fathers, born at Alexandria, A. D. 185. Parianus, bishop of Barcelona, died A.D. 390.Phabadius, or Phagadius, was of the province of Aquitain, of which he was bishop; he flourished about A. D. 359.-Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, A. D. 857-Pru dentius, (Clemens Aurelius) of Saragossa, in Spain, flourished about A D. 405. Rufinus. Presbyter of Aquileia, an eminent translator of Greek authors into Latin: he died A. D. 410.

Scholia, or Scholiasta, marginal notes in some ancient MSS. &c.

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the exact words of the sacred writers, but the, of the oldest extant, I have not mentioned sense; and often rendering a word by another among the MSS. described p. x. xi. because equivalent to it, in the same language. This it has not been quoted by Griesbach, not being sort of quotation has given rise to a vast num-published when the first volume of his Testa ber of various readings, which should never ment went to the press. The work in which encumber the margins of our critical editions Dr. Barrett has described this, I have quoted of the Greek text; though many of them may largely in the notes on the genealogy of our be of use, as fixing the sense in which the wri- Lond at the end of Luke, chap. iii. ters understood the original text. Those fa- Every biblical student, in consulting the thers who comment on the Sacred Writings sacred writings of the New Testament, are most valuable, such as Origen, Ambrosi- should have at hand, if possible, the second aster, Euthalius, Chrysostom, Jerome, Theo-edition of Griesbach; I mean that printed at phylact, &c. because it may be always sup- Halle, two volumes 8vo. 1796, &c. On the late posed they had the copies before them, froin London edition of that work, equal dependTertullian, a most eminent Latin Father, died which they quoted; and that these copies were ance cannot be placed. about A. D. 216.-Theophilus, bishop of Anti-such as were held to be authentic in the och, flourished about A. D. 190.-Theophylact, churches to which they respectively belonged, archbishop of Acris, in Bulgaria, died A. D. But even here we find the same father incon 1100-Theophanes Cerameus, bishop of Tau-sistent with himself in repeated quotations of romine, in Sicily, flourished in the 11th cen- the same words; which is perhaps not so tury-Titus Bostrensis; he was bishop of much to be attributed to quoting from memo Bostria some time in the fourth century. ry, as to mistakes made by succeeding copy Victor Antiochenus, flourished about A.D. 400: ists of the works of these authors. The differhe wrote on St. Mark's Gospel, and on the fent MBS of the Greek and Latin fathers, stand Catholic Epistles-Victor Tununensis, bi-as much in need of coilation as any other shop of Tunis, in Africa, flourished about, and some of them need this as much -Victorinus Afer, (C. M.) was an African, as the Greek text itself. and flourished in A. D. 360.-Vigillus Tepsensis, bishop of Tapsum, in Africa, flourish ed about A. D. 484.

For farther information concerning these and other writers mentioned in the work, see Care's Historia Literaria, and Dr. Lardner's works. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. The above writers are only referred to for the quotations from the Sacred Writings found In their works. The Latin fathers, before the time of Jerome, i. e. before the fourth century, quote from the Itala version. Toose after his time, generally make their quotations from the Vulgate. The Greek Fathers quote from the different editions of the Greek text in their respective countries. Ephraim Syrus, and prodly some others, from the ancient Synar version. Of the fathers in general, it may be said, they often quote from memory; not giving

Those who have not a polyglott, to refer to the Syriac version, will find Schaaf's edition to answer every purpose; it is generally very correct and very valuable. A new edition of the Syriac Testament is now in the press, at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society, under the direction of the Rev. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, who has made this text his particular study; and has brought from the east soine valuable MSS. of this important and ancient version.

While the critical inquirer is availing himIn quoting the Greek text, I have generally self of every help within his reach, let hir followed the second edition of Griesbach, oc- not forget humbly and fervently to implors casionally consulting Mill, Wetstein, and Ben- the help and teaching of Almighty God; withgel: for the different versions, as far as they fout whom, nothing is wise, nothing strong. are extant in it, I have followed the London It is only when He opens our eyes that we polyglott, occasionally consulting both the behold wonders in his law. He who does not Coinplutensian and Antwerp editions. The pray, is not humble; and an unhumbled Coptic, Gothic, Sahidic, Philoxenian, Syriac, 'searcher after truth never yet found it to the and Anglo Saxon, which are not in the polysalvation of his soul. In such a work, the glotts, I have consulted the editions to which following inimitable prayer cannot be used in they are confined. The Vulgate I have fre- vain: "Blessed Lord, who hast caused all quently consulted in my own MSS. of that Holy Scriptures to be written for our learn. version. The Codex Alexandrinus and the ing, grant that we may in such wise hear Codex Bezze, I have often quoted from the edi-them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest tions of Woide, and Kipling. I have taken a them, that by patience and comfort of thy few readings from some fragments of Matholy word, we may embrace, and ever hold thew's Gospel, engraven and published from fast, the blessed hope of everlasting life, which a codex rescriptus in Trinity College, Dub-thou hast given us in our Saviour Jesus lin, by the very learned Dr. Barrett, vice pro-Christ." Amen. Collect for the second Sun vost and librarian of that university. This | day of Advent. MS, written in uncial letters, and perhaps one London, Feb. 21, 1914.


xxix. 45. Lev. xxvi. 15. and Deut. xxix. 12. where every thing relative to this subject is largely handled.

THE general title of this latter collection of Sacred Books, | which, as well as the former, all Christians acknowledge to have been given by immediate inspiration from God, is in the The term New Covenant, as used here, seems to mean, that Greek H KAINH AIAOHKH, which we translate THE NEW grand plan of agreement or reconciliation which God made TESTAMENT: but which should rather be translated THE between himself and mankind, by the death of Jesus Christ; NEW COVENANT; or, if it were lawful to use a periphra- in consequence of which, all those who truly repent, and unsis, The New Corenant, including a Testamentary Declara-feignedly believe in the great atoning sacrifice, are purified tion and Bequest: for this is precisely the meaning of this from their sins, and united to God. Christ is called rns Acasystem of justice, holiness, goodness, and truth. t. Paul, Onens katuns Hearns. The Mediator of the New Covenant, 2 Cor. iii. 14. calls the Sacred Books before the time of Christ, Heb. ix. 15. And referring to the ratification of this New CoH HAAAIA AIAOHKH, THE OLD COVENANT; which is venant, or agreement, by means of his own death, in the cele. a very proper and descriptive title of the grand subject of those bration of his last supper, Christ calls the cup, Tо TOTLOV, Books. This apostle evidently considers the Old Testaments kain Diabŋen ev to dipart pay, This cup is the New Cove and the New, as two Covenants, Gal. iv. 24. and in comparing nant in my blood: i. e, an einblem or representation of the these two together, he calls one, zadatur čianky, the old co- New Covenant, ratified by his blood. See Luke xxii. 20. And venant, the other kany, the new; one rowrηy, the first, the from these expressions and their obvious meaning, the whole other year, that which is recent; in opposition to the old cove-Christian Scriptures have obtained this title, THE NEW TES aant, which was to terininate in the new, he calls this Kper-TAMENT, OR COVENANT, OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS Tova, better, more excellent, Heb. vii. 22. viii. 6. and atoviOV, CHRIST.

Christian Scriptures, and their grand subject, which were called The NEW Covenant; not so much because it was a new agreement, but rather a renewal of the old, in which the spirit, object, and design of that primitive Covenant were more clearly and fully manifested.

everlasting, Heb. xiii. 20. because it is never to be changed, Those writings, and the grand subject of them, which, prenor terminate in any other: and to endure endlessly itself.viously to the New Testament times, were termed simply The word Covenant, from con, together, and venio, I come; Covenant; were, after the Incarnation, called The OLD Cove signifies a contract or agreement, made between two parties;nant, as we have already seen, to distinguish them from the to fulfil the conditions of which, they are mutually bound. The Old Covenant, in its essential parts, was very simple. I WILL BE YOUR GOD: YE SHALL BE MY PEOPLE-the spirit of which was never changed. The people were to take Jehovah as the sole object of their religious worship, put their whole trust and confidence in Him; serve Him in his own way, ac- The particular title to each of the four following Books, in cording to the prescribed forms which He should lay before most Greek MSS, and printed editions, is EYATTEAION kara them. This was their part. On His side, God was to accept MATOAION-MAPKÓN-AOYKAN-IOANNHN, which we them as His people, give them His Spirit to guide them, His translate, The Gospel according to Matthew-Mark-Lukemercy to pardon them, His providence to support them, and John; i. e. the Gospel or history of our blessed Lord, as writ His grace to preserve them unto eternal life. But all this was ten and transmitted to posterity by each of these writers. Our connected with the strict observance of a great variety of rites word GOSPEL, which should always be written godspel or and ceremonies, at once expressive of the holiness of God, the godespel, comes from the Anglo-Saxon gocrpel, and is com purity of the Divine Justice, and the exceeding sinfulness and pounded of god, good, and rpel, history, narrative, doctrine, utter helpless state of man. A great part of the four latter mystery, or secret; and was applied by our ancestors, to sig. Books of Moses, is employed in prescribing and illustrating nify the revelation of that glorious system of truth, which had these rites and ceremonies, and what is called the New Cove-been, in a great measure, hidden or kept secret from the foun. nunt, is the complement and perfection of the whole.

The word Atauŋŋ, from dia, and rŋpt, I lay down, signi fies not only a covenant agreement, but also that disposal which a man makes of his secular matters during his life, which is to take place after his death. It answers to the He brew berith, from ¬ bar, to purify, because in making covenants, a sacrifice was usually offered to God for the purification of the contracting parties; and hence the word berith, is frequently used to express not only the covenant it self, but also the sacrifice offered on the occasion. See below under GOSPEL; and see the notes ou Gen. vi. 18. rv. 18. Exod.,

dation of the world.

Among Saxon scholars, the word GOSPEL has been variously explained. Mr. Somner, who writes it god-rpell, explains it thus, Sermo Dei mysticus; Dei historia. "The mystic word of God; the history of God." But he supposes that it may be compounded of god, good, and rpell, a message: and very properly observes, that godrpelitan, signifies, not only to preach or proclaim the Gospel; but also to foretel, or predict; to prophesy, to divine: and in this latter sense, the word rpell, spell, was anciently used among us, and still sig. nifies an incantation, or a charm; which implies a peculiar

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