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I shall produce a specimen of one of the several kinds men. tioned above, giving the original only of the first; and, of the others, verbal translations.

1. The certificate of a man's having purchased his own freedom. Den pucelað on dissere Eristes bec dat Ælppig re ned hæro geboht lune reifne ut at Elfrige abb. And callon hipede. mid anon púnde daɲ is to gepitner call re bined on Badan.

Enrt hine ablende.
de dir geprit apende.

"Here is witnessed, in this book of Christ, that Elfwig the Red, hath redeemed himself from abbot Elfsig, and the whole convent, with one pound. And this is witnessed by the whole convent of Bath.

offered to idols,

viii. sec. 2. pag. 160. It is evident that the whole of this cere. mony is emblematical.-1. The pitcher represents the confined servile state of the slave-2. The articles contained in it, his exclusion while in a state of slavery, from the grand benefits and comforts of life-3. The water contained in the pitcher, his exclusion from the refreshing influences of heaven; for slaves were not permitted to take part in the ordinances of religion-4. The clean unboiled rice; his incapacity to have seen. lar possessions; for slaves were not permitted to possess lands either by inheritance or purchase: a slave could sow no seed for himself, and consequently have no legal claim on support from this staff of life-5. The doob or salad shut up, his be ing without relish for that state of being, which was rendered insupportable to him by his thraldom-6. The breaking of the pitcher, his manumission and enjoyinent of liberty: being as free to go whithersoever he would, as the water was to run, be. water, rice, flowers, &c. over his body, his privilege of enjoy. 2. Certificate of one having purchased the liberty of and possessing every heavenly and earthly good-8. His "Here is witnessed in this book of Christ, that Edric Alford stepping towards the east, his acknowledgment to the Su. has redeemed Segufa, his daughter, from the Abbot Efsig preme Being, the fountain of light and life, (of whom the sun and from the convent of Bath, to be for ever free, and all her was the emblem,) for his enlargement; and his eagerness to posterity." possess the light and comfort of that new state of happiness into which he was now brought, in consequence of his inanumission.

May Christ strike him blind,
Who this writing perverts."

This is a usual execration at the end of these forms: and is ing now disengaged from the pitcher-7. The shedding of the in rhyme in the original.

3. Certificate of redemption, in behalf of one departed. "Here is witnessed in this book of Christ, that Elfric Scot, and Egel. ric Scot, are manumitted for the soul of Abbot Elfsig, to per. petual liberty. This was done with the testimony of the whole convent."

4. Certificate of persons manumitted to be devoted to the Bervice of God. "Here is witnessed in this book of Christ, that John bought Gunnilda, the daughter of Thurkill, from Goda, widow of Leafenath, with half a pound. With the testimony of the whole convent.

May Christ strike him blind,
Who this writing perverts.
And he has dedicated her to Chrisi and St. Peter, in behalf of
his mother's soul."

9. When a man was made free, it was either in the church, or at some public meeting; the sheriff of the county took him by the right hand, and proclaimed him a freeman; and showed him the open door, and the public highway; intimating that he was free to go withersoever he pleased, and then gave him the arms of a freeman, viz. a spear and a sword. In some cases the man was to pay thirty pence to his master, of hide money: intimating that he was no longer under restraint, chastisement, or correction. From which it appears, that our ancestors were in the habit of flogging their slaves. See the laws of Ina, c. 24. 39. of Wm. the Conqueror, c. 65. and of Hen. 1. c. 79.

10. Among the Gentoos, the manumission of a slave was as follows:-The slave took a pitcher, filled it with water, and put therein berenge-arook, (rice that had been cleansed with, out boiling,) and flowers of doob, (a kind of a small salad,) and taking the pitcher on his shoulder, he stands near his master; the master then puts the pitcher on the slave's head, breaks it so that the water, rice, flowers, and doob, that were in the picher, may fall on the slave's body: when this is done, the master thrice pronounces, I have made thee free: then the slave steps forward a few paces towards the east, and then the manumission is complete. See Code of Gentoo Laws, chap.

11. The description that Dr. John Taylor gives, in his Elements of Civil Lu, of the state of slaves auiong the ancients, will nearly suit with their state among our ancestors; though scarcely as bad as their state in the West Indies. "They were held among the Romans-pro nullis-pro mortuis-pro quadrupedibus-for no men-for dead men--for beasts: nay, were in a much worse state than any cattle whatever. They had no head in the state, no name, no tribe or register. They were not capable of being injured; nor could they take by purchase or descent: had no heirs, and could make no will. Exclusive of what was called their peculium, whatever they acquired was their master's: they could neither plead nor be pleaded; but were entirely excluded from all civil concerns: were not entitled to the rights of matrimony, and therefore had no relief in case of adultery: nor were they proper objects of cognition nor affinity. They might be sold, transfer. red, or pawned, like other goods or personal estate; for goods they were, and such were they esteemed. They might be tortured for evidence, punished at the discretion of their lord, and even put to death by his authority. They were laid under several other civil incapacities, too tedious to mention."

When all this is considered, we may at once see the horrible evil of slavery; and wonder at the grace which could render them happy and contented in this situation: see the preceding chapter, verses 20, 21, and 22. And yet we need not be surprised that the apostle should say to those who were free or freed, Ye are bought with a price; do not become slaves of men.

12. I have entered the inore particularly into this subject, because it, or allusions to it, are frequently occurring in the New Testament; and I speak of it here once for all. And to conclude, I here register my testimony against the unprincipled, inhuman, anti-christian, and diabolic Slave Trade, with all its authors, promoters, abettors, and sacrilegious gains; as well as against the Great Devil, the father of it and thein. CHAPTER VIII.

The question of the Corinthians concerning meats offered to idols, and the apostle's preface to his instructions on that head, 1-3. The nature of idolatry, 4, 5. Of genuine worship, 6. Some ate of the animals that had been offered to idols, knowingly, and so defiled their conscience, 7. Neither eating nor abstinence in themselves, recommend us to God, 8. But no man should use his Christian liberty so as to put a stumbling-block before a brother, 9, 10. If he act otherwise, he may be the means of a brother's destruction, 11. Those who act so as to wound the tender conscience of a brother, sin against Christ, 12. The apostle's resolution on this head, 13. [A. M. 4060. A. D. 56. A. U. C. 809. An. Imp. Neronis Cæs. 3.] TOW, as touching things offered unto idols, we know that we all have bknowledge. * Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.

a Acts 15.20,29. Ch 10.19-b Rom, 14.14,22.- Rom. 14.3,10.-d Ch. 13. §, 9, 12. NOTES-Verse 1. As touching things offered unto idols] This was another subject on which the Corinthians had asked the apostle's advice: and we shall understand the whole of this chapter the better, when we consider one fact, viz. That there had long subsisted a controversy between the Karaïtes and the Traditionists, how far it was lawful to derive any benefit or advantage from things used by the Gentiles. The Karaites were a sect of the Jews who scrupulously held to the letter of the Sacred Writings; taking this alone for their directory. The Traditionists were those who followed the voice of the elders; interpreting the Divine Testimonies by their decisions. From a work of the Karaïtes, entitled Addereth Eliyahu, Triglandus bas extracted the following decixions, which will throw light upon this subject. "It is unlawful to receive any benefit from any kind of heathen wor. ship; or from any thing that has been offered to an idol." It is unlawful to buy or sell an idol; and if, by accident, any such thing shall come into thy power, thou shalt derive no emolument from it"-"The animals that are destined and prepared for the worship of idols, are universally prohibited; and particularly those which bear the mark of the idol. This should be maintained against the opinion of the Traditionists, who think they may lawfully us these kinds of animals, pro

2 And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he
knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.

3 But if any man love God, the same is known of him.
Gal 6.3 1 Tim.6.4 Exod. 33, 12, 17. Nah. 1.7. Matt.7.23. Gal.4 9. 2 Tim.2.19

vided they be not marked with the sign of the idols." Thus
far the Karuïtes; and here we see one strong point of differ-
ence between these two sects. The Karaïtes totally objected
to every thing used in idolatrous services: the Traditionists,
as the Talmud shows, did generally the same; but it appears
that they scrupled not to use any animal employed in idola-
trous worship, provided they did not see the sign of the idol
on it. Now, the sign of the idol must be that placed on the
animal previously to its being sacrificed; such as gilded
horns and hoofs, consecrated fillets, garlands, &c. And, as
after it had been sacrificed, and its flesh exposed for sale in
the shambles, it could bear none of these signs, we may take
it for granted that the Jews might think it lawful to buy and
eat this flesh; this the Karaïte would most solemnly scruple.
It may be just necessary to state here, that it was customary
after the blood and life of an animal had been offered in sacri-
fice to an idol, to sell the flesh in the market indiscriminately,
with that of other animals, which had not been sacrificed:
but merely killed for common use. Even the less scrupulous
Jews, knowing that any particular flesh had been thus offered.
would abhor the use of it: and as those who lived among the
Gentiles, as the Jews at Corinth, must know that this was a
common case; hence they would be generally scrupulous ;

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4 As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we know that fan idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but


5 For, though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) 6 But i to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ," by whom are all things, and we by him.

7 Howbeit, there is not in every man that knowledge; for some with conscience of the idol unto this hour eat it as a thing offered unto an idol; and their conscience being weak is P defiled.

8 But meat commendeth us not to God: for neither if we eat, f18.41.24. Ch. 10, 19-g Deu 4.30 & 6.4 s 44.8. Mk.12.29. Ver.6. Eph.4.6. 1 Tim. 2.5-h Jn. 10. 4.-i Mal 2.10. Eph.4.6-k Ac. 17 28. Rom. 11.36.-1 Or, for him.m John 13.13. Acts 2.36. Ch. 12.3. Eph.4.5. Phil 2.11.-n Jn. 1.3. Col.1.6. Heb.1. and those of them that were converted to Christianity, would have their scruples increased, and be as rigid on this point as the Karaïtes themselves. On the other hand, those of the Gentiles who had received the faith of Christ, knowing that an idol was nothing in the world, nor was even a representa tion of any thing, (for the beings represented by idol images were purely imaginary,) made no scruple to buy and eat the flesh as they used to do, though not with the same intention: for when in their heathen state, they ate the flesh offered to idols, they ate it as a feast with the idol, and were thus sup. posed to have communion with the idol; which was the grossest idolatry.

From these observations, it will at once appear, that much misunderstanding and offence must have existed in the Corinthian church; the converted Jews abominating every thing that they knew had been used in the heathen worship; while the converted Gentiles, for the reasons above assigned, would feel no scruple on the account.

We know that we all have knowledge] I am inclined to think that these are not St. Paul's words; but a quotation from the letter of the Corinthians to him: and a proof of what the apostle says below, knowledge puffeth up: but, however the words may be understood as to their origin, they contain a general truth, as they relate to Christians of those times; and may be thus paraphrased: All we who are converted to God, by Christ, have sufficient knowledge concerning idols and idol worship and we know also the liberty which we have through the Gospel, not being bound by Jewish laws, rites, ceremonies, &c. but many carry their knowledge in this liberty too far, and do what is neither seemly nor convenient, and thus give offence to others."

Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.] This know. ledge is very nearly allied to pride; it puffeth up the mind with vain conceit, makes those who have it bold and rash, and renders them careless of the consciences of others. And this knowledge boasted of by the Corinthians, led them to contemn others: for so the word quotoi is understood by some eminent critics.

2. He knoweth nothing yet, &c.] The person who acts in this rash unfeeling way, from the general knowledge which he has of the vanity of idolatry, and the liberty which the Gospel affords from Jewish rites; with all his knowledge, does not know this, that though the first and greatest commandment says, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, &c. yet the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. He then that can torment his neigh bour's weak or tender conscience, with his food or his conduct, does not love him as himself; and therefore knows nothing as he ought to know.

3. But if any man love God] In that way which the commandment requires, which will necessarily beget love to his neighbour, the same is known of him, is approved of God, and acknowledged as his genuine follower.

4. Things that are offered in sacrifice] See on the first verse. An idol is nothing in the world) Dr. Lighfoot translates this, we know that there is no idol in the world; which he explains thus-Ειδωλον, idol, is ομοίωμα, εικών, σημείον, χαρακTηplov, σKLOεides; a likeness, an image, a sign, a character, a shadow; now, ovder eidwλov, signifies there is no idol, no representation of GoD in the world. Images there are of stone, wood, and metal, but none of these is any representa tion of the Infinite Spirit. But I prefer the meaning given in the note on verse 1. As the expression an idol is nothing in the world, was common in the Old Testament, and among the Jews; and was understood by them in this way: they are not Elohim, the true God; but they are D nothings, and an habelim, VANITY.

5. There be that are called gods] There are many images that are supposed to be representations of divinities; but these divinities are nothing: the figments of mere fancy; and these images have no corresponding realities.

Whether in heaven or in earth] As the sun, moon, planets, stars; the ocean, rivers, trees, &c. And thus there are, nominally, gods many and lords many.

6. But to us there is but one God, the Father] Who produced all things, himself un-created, and un-originated. And we in him, kai nμeis eis avrov, and we FOR him; all intelligent beings having been created for the purpose of manifesting his glory, by receiving and reflecting his wisdom, goodness, and truth.

offered to idols


'are we the better; neither if we eat not, are we the worse. 9 But, take heed, lest by any means this liberty of yours become a stumbling-block to them that are weak. 10 For, if any man see thee which hast knowledge, sit at meat in the idol's temple, shall not the conscience of him which is weak be emboldened to eat those things which are offered to idols;

11 And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother pe rish, for whom Christ died 7

12 But, when ye sin so against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ.

13 Wherefore, bif meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.

2-0 Ch. 10.29,29.-pom. 14. 14,23. Rom. 14. 17.-r Or. have we the more - Or, have we the less-t Gal. 5 (3-u Or, power.- Ro.14 13,20-w1 Mace. 1.47-8 Ch. 10.26,2-y Gr.edified - Rom 14. 15,20 Matt. 25, 40,45-b Ro. 14.21. 20.11.9

And one Lord Jesus] Only one visible governor of the world and the church; by whom are all things: who was the Creator, as he is the upholder of the universe. And tre by him, being brought to the knowledge of the true God, by the revelation of Jesus Christ; for, it is the only begotten Son alone that can reveal the Father. The gods of whom the apostle speaks, were their divinities, or objects of religious worship; the lords were the rulers of the world, such as em perors, who were considered next to gods, and some of them were deified. In opposition to those gods he places God the Father, the fountain of plenitude and being: and in opposi tion to the lords, he places Jesus Christ, who made and who governs all things. We, as creatures, live in reference, as avrov, to him, God the Father, who is the fountain of our be ing: and, as Christians, we live di avrov, by or through him, Jesus Christ; by whom we are bought, enlightened, pardoned, and saved.

7. There is not in every man that knowledge] This is spoken in reference to what is said, ver. 4. We know that an idol is nothing in the world; for some with a conscience of the idol, viz. that it is something, eat it; the flesh that was offered to the idol, as a thing thus offered, considering the feast as a sacred banquet, by which they have fellowship with the idol. And their conscience being weak, not properly instructed in divine things, is defiled: he performs what he does as an act of religious worship, and thus his conscience contracts guilt through this idolatry.

As in the commencement of Christianity among the Jews that were converted, there were many found who incorpora ted the rites of the law with the principles of the Gospel; sn, doubtless, among the Gentiles there were several who did not at once throw aside all their idolatry or idolatrous notions, but preserved some of its more spiritual and imposing parts, and might think it necessary to mingle idolatrous feasts with the rites of Christianity-as the sacrament of the Lord's supper was certainly considered as a feast upon a sacrifice, as I have proved in my Discourse on the Nature and Design of the Eucharist as the minds of many of these young Gentile converts could not, as yet, have been deeply endued with spiritual knowledge, they might incorporate these feasts, and confound their nature and properties.

8. Meat commendeth us not to God] No such feasts as these can be a recommendation of our souls or persons to the Supreme Being. As to the thing, considered in itself, the eating gives us no spiritual advantage; and the eating not, is no spiritual loss.

9. But take heed] Lest by frequenting such feasts, and eating things offered to idols, under the conviction that an ide! is nothing, and that you may eat those things innocently; lest this liberty of yours should become a means of grievously of fending a weak brother, who has not your knowledge; or inducing one, who respects you for your superior knowledge, to partake of these things with the conscience, the persuasion and belief that an idol is something, and you partake of such things; so he may also, and with safety. He is not possessed of your superior information on this point, and he eats to the idol, what you take as a common meal.

10. If any man see thee which hast knowledge] Of the true God, and who art reputed for thy skill in divine things.

Sit at meat in the idol's temple] Is it not strange that any, professing the knowledge of the true God, should even enter one of those temples! And is it not more surprising that any Christian should be found to feast there? But by all this we may see, that the boasted knowledge of the Corinthians had very little depth in things purely spiritual.

There are many curious, thin-spun theories in the Rabbinical writings, concerning entering idol-temples, and eating there, and even worshipping there; provided the mind be towards the true God. Dr. Lightfoot produces several quotations to prove this. Perhaps the man of knowledge mentioned by the apostle, was one of those who, possessing a convenient conscience, could accommodate himself to all circum stances; be a heathen without, and a Christian within, and vice versa, as circumstances might require.

Be emboldened to eat] Otxodopnonocrai, be built up, be con firmed and established in that opinion which before he doobsingly held, that on seeing you eat, he may be led to think there is no harm in feasting in an idol-temple, nor in eating things offered to idols.

11. Shall the weak brother perish] Being first taught by thy


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conduct that there was no harm in thus eating, grieves the Spirit of God, becomes again darkened and hardened: and sliding back into idolatry, dies in it, and so finally perishes. For whom Christ died) So we learn that a man may perish fer whom Christ died-This admits of no quibble. If a man for whom Christ died, apostatising from Christianity, for he is called a brother, though weak, return again to and die in idolatry, cannot go to heaven; then a man for whom Christ died, may perish everlastingly. And if it were possible for a believer, whether strong or weak, to retrace his steps back to idolatry and die in it, surely it is possible for a man who had escaped the pollutions that are in the world to return to it, live and die in its spirit, and perish everlastingly also. Let him that readeth understand.

12 But, when ye sin so against the brethren] Against Christians, who are called by the Gospel to abbor and detest all such abominations.

Ye sin against Christ.] By sending to perdition, through your bad example, a soul for whom he shed his blood; and so far defeating the gracious intentions of his sacrificial death. This is a farther intimation, that a person for whom Christ died, may perish: and this is the drift of the apostle's argument. 13. Wherefore, &c] Rather than give any occasion to a Christian to sin against, and so to harden his conscience that he should return to idolatry and perish; I would not only abstain from all meats offered to idols, but I would eat no flesh, should I exist through the whole course of time, but live on the herbs of the field, rather than cause my brother to stumble, and thus fall into idolatry and final ruin.

The following words of Origen contain a very solemn lesson and warning "If we did more diligently attend to these things, we should avoid sinning against our brethren, and wounding their weak conscience, that we might not sin against Christ; our brethren that are among us, for whom Christ died; often perishing, not only by our knowledge, but by many other ways, and things, in which things, we, sinning against Christ, shall suffer punishment: the souls of them that perish by us, being required of, and avenged upon us." See Whitby on this place.

1. The greater our reputation for knowledge and sanctity, the greater mischief we shall do by our influence and example, if we turn aside from the holy commandment delivered unto us. Every man should walk so as either to light or lead his brother to heaven.

2. It is the duty of every Christian to watch against apostacy in his own case, and to prevent it as much as possible in that of others. That a person for whom Christ died may finally perish, is strongly argued, says Dr. Whitby, from this place, and Rom. xiv. 15. for here the apostle dissuades the Corinthi ans from scandalizing their weak brethren, by an argument taken from the irreparable mischiefs they may do them, the eternal ruin they may bring upon them by this scandal; whereas, if it be, as some assert, that all things, even the sins of the elect, shall work together for their good, and that they shall never perish; if the apostle knew, and taught this doctrine to them, why does he endeavour to affright them from this scandal, by telling them that it might have that effect, which he had before told them was impossible? If you in terpret his words thus, so shall he perish for whom, in charity, ye ought to judge Christ died. It is certain from this doctrine, that they must be assured that this judgment of charity

his apostleship.

must be false; or that their brother could not perish. In the
first place, they could not be obliged to act by it: and in the
second, they could not rationally be moved by it to abstain
from giving scandal on that impossible supposition.
If you interpret the apostle thus, So shalt thou do that
which, in its nature, tends to make thy brother perish; and
might have that effect, had not God determined to preserve
all from perishing, for whom Christ died. Since this deter-
mination renders it sure to me, who know it, that they cannot
actually perish, it must assure me that there can be no cause
of abstinency from this scandal, lest they should perish by it.
Moreover, by thus offending, saith the apostle, ye sin
against Christ; viz. by sinning against him whom he has
purchased by his blood; and destroying them for whose sal-
vation he has suffered. If this intent of Christ's death be de-
nied, how can we show in what Christ has demonstrated his
great love to them that perish? Is it possible that they can
sin against redeeming love? and how, by thus offending
them who neither do nor can belong to him as members of his
mystical body, are we injurious to Christ? See Whitby on
this place.

3. It is natural for man to wish and affect to be wise; and when this desire is cultivated in reference to lawful objects. it will be an indescribable good; but when, like Eve, we see ín a prohibition, something to be desired to make one wise, we are then, like her, on the verge of our fall. Though ex tensive knowledge is not given to all, yet it is given for all; and is the public property of the church. He who does not use it for general edification, robs the public of its right. For the misuse and misapplication of this talent, we shall give ac count to God, as well as of other gifts and graces.

4. Persons of an over-tender and scrupulous conscience, may be very troublesome in a Christian society; but as this excessive scrupulosity comes from a want of more light, more experience, or more judgment, we should bear with them Though such should often run into ridiculous extremes, yet we must take care that we do not attempt to cure them either with ridicule or wrath. Extremes generally beget extremes; and such persons require the most judicious treatment, else they will soon be stumbled and turned out of the way. We should be very careful lest in using what is called Christian liberty, we occasion their fall; and for our own sake, we must take heed that we do not denominate sinful indulgen. ces, Christian liberties.

5. Though we are bound to take heed that we put not a stumbling-block in the way of a weak brother; yet if such a brother be stumbled at any part of our conduct which is not blameable in itself; but of which he may have taken a wrong view, we are not answerable for the consequences. We are called to walk by the testimony of God; not according to the measure of any man's conscience, how sincere soever he may be.

6. Many persons cover a spirit of envy and uncharitableness, with the name of godly zeal, and tender concern for the salvation of others; they find fault with all; their spirit is a spi. rit of universal censoriousness; none can please them and every one suffers by them. These destroy more souls by tything mint and cummin, than others do by neglecting the weightier matters of the law. Such persons have what is termed, and very properly too, sour godliness. Both are extremes, and he who would avoid perdition must avoid them. CHAPTER IX.

St. Paul vindicates his apostleship, and shows that he has equal rights and privileges with Peter and the brethren of our Lord; and that he is not bound, while doing the work of an apostle, to labour with his hands for his own support, 1-6. He who labours should live by the fruit of his own industry, 7. For the law will not allow even the ox to be muzzled which treads out the corn, 8-10. Those who minister in spiritual things, have a right to a secular support for their work, 11-14. He shows the disinterested manner in which he has preached the Gospel, 15-18. How he accommodated himself to the prejudices of men, in order to bring about their salvation, 19–23. The way to heaven compared to a race, 24. The qualifications of those who may expect success in the games celebrated at Corinth, and what that success im plies, 25. The apostle applies these things spiritually to himself; and states the necessity of keeping his body in subjec tion, lest after having proclaimed salvation to others, he should become a castaway, 26, 27. [A. M. 4060. A. D. 56. A. U. C. 809. An. Imp. Neronis Cæs. 3.]


M*I not an apostle ? am I not free ?b have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? are not ye my work in the Lord ? Acto 2 15. & 13.2. & 26.17. 2 Cor. 12.12. Gal. 2:7,8. ITim. 2. 7. 2 Tim.1.11.-b Acts

NOTES.-Verse 1. Am I not an apostle ?] It is sufficiently evident that there were persons at Corinth. who questioned the apostleship of St. Paul; and he was obliged to walk very circumspectly, that they might not find any occasion against him. It appears also that he had given them all his apostolical labours gratis; and even this, which was the highest proof of his disinterested benevolence, was produced by his opposers, as an argument against him. "Prophets, and all divinely commissioned men, have a right to their secular sup. port; you take nothing:-is this not from a conviction that you have no apostolical right?" On this point the apostle Immediately enters on his own defence.

Am I not an apostle? am I not free?] These questions are all designed as assertions of the affirmative: I am an apostle, and I am free, possessed of all the rights and privileges of an apostle.

Have I not seen Jesus Christ] From whom, in his per. sonal appearance to me, I have received my apostolic commission. This was judged essentially necessary to constitute an apostle. See Acts xxii. 14, 15. xxvi. 16.

2 If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for d the seal of my apostleship are ye in the Lord. 9.3,17. & 18. 9. & 22. 14,18. & 23.11. Ch. 15.8.— Ch.3.6. & 4.15. -d 2 Cor. 3.2.& 12.12. Are not ye my work] Your conversion from heathenisin is a proof that I have preached with the divine unction and authority.

Several good MSS. and Versions transpose the two first questions in this verse, thus; Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? But I cannot see that either perspicuity or sense gains any thing by this arrangement. On the contrary, it ap pears to me that his being an apostle gave him the freedom or rights to which he refers, and therefore the common arrangement I judge to be the best.

2. If I be not an apostle unto others] If there be other churches which have been founded by other apostles; yet it is not so with you.

The seal of mine apostleship are ye] Your conversion to Christianity, is God's seal to my apostleship. Had not God sent me, I could not have profited your souls.

The appayıs, or seal, was a figure cut in a stone, and that set in a ring, by which letters of credence and authority were stamped. The ancients, particularly the Greeks, excelled in this kind of engraving. The cabinets of the curious give am.

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3 Mine answer to them that do examine me is this, 4 Have we not power to eat and to drink?

5 Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and & Cephas?

6 Or I only and Barnabas, i have not we power to forbear working?

7 Whok goeth a warfare any time at his own charges? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof or who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock? 8 Say I these things as a man? or saith not the law the same also l

9 For it is written in the law of Moses, " Thou shalt not muz. zle the mouth of the x that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen ?

⚫ Ver. 14 Luke 6.15 6.12 2 Tim

n Dea.25 4.

should live by the Gospel

10 Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written that he that plougheth should plough in hope; and that be that thresheth in hope should be parts. ker of his hope.

11 PIf we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things? 12 If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather 19 Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the Gospel of Chris 13 Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things, live of the things of the temple and they which wait at the altar, are partakers with the altar }

14 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel.

15 But I have used none of these things: neither have I | Thess 2.6. 2 These 3,9 - Or, woman. -g Matt. 13.55. Mark 6.2. p Rom 18.27. Gni 6.6. —y Arts 21.33 Ver.15, 18. 2 Cor. 11.7,9 & 12 13. ↑ Them 2 Gal. 1.19-by at H 14 -12 Thesi 48, J.--% Cor. 4. 1 Tira. 1.19. & 6- Cor 11 12 - Lev.6 16, 25. & 7.6, ze. Num 3.9, 10.& 158-30. Dent& 23. & 1.7.-1 Dou. 216 Prov.27 18. Chap 3 6, 7, 9.-an Joha 21.15-18 1.-t Or, feed u Mart 19.10 Loke 19.7 -v (lal 6 G. I Tira. 5. 17. Verse 12 1 Tim.5.102 Tim 2.6. Acts 18 & 1.34. Ch.4.12. i These 2.5. 2 Thoes.3.8.

ple proof of this; and the moderus contend in vain to rival the perfection of those ancient masters.

In the Lord) The apostle shows that it was by the grace and influence of God alone, that he was an apostle; and that they were converted to Christianity.

3. Mine answer to them] I sμn arodnyia rois que avaxpi. Younty. This is my defence against those who examine me. The words are forensic; and the apostle considers himself as brought before a legal tribunal; and questioned so, as to be, obliged to answer as upon oath. His defence therefore, was this, that they were converted to God by his means; this verse belongs to the two preceding verses.

more forcibly to point out that the common sense of inse joins with the providence of God, in showing the propriety of every man living by the fruits of his labour. The first ques tion applies particularly to the case of the apostle, ris SDATED erat coins mortos. Does a soldier provide his own victua's? Oorov, is used to express the military pay or wages, by the Greek writers; for the Ronan soldiers were paid not only in money but in victuals; and hence corn was usually distribs ted among them. See on Luke iii. 14.

8. Say I these things as a man] Is this only human reasoning or does not God say in effect the same thing ree note on Row. vi. 19.

9. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the or] See thes largely explained in the note on Deut. xxv. 4.

4. Have we not power to eat and to drink? Have we not authority or right, clavorav, to expect sustenance, while we are labouring for your salvation? Meat and drink, the neces- Doth God take care for ozen 1] This question is to be un saries, not the superfluities of life, were what those primitive derstood thus: Is it likely that God should be solicitons for messengers of Christ required; it was just that they who lathe comfort of oxen, and be regardless of the welfare of mon! boured in the Gospel, should live by the Gospel; they did not In this divine precept, the kindness and providential care of wish to make a fortune, or accumulate wealth; a living was God are very forcibly pointed out. He takes care of oxEN: all they desired. It was probably in reference to the same no he wills them all that happiness of which their nature is sus derate and reasonable desire that the provision inade for the ceptible; and can we suppose that he is unwilling that the clergy in this country, was called a living; and their work human soul shall have that bappiness which is suited to its for which they got this living, was called the cure of souls. spiritual and eternal nature? He could not reprobate an or, Whether we derive the word cure from cura, care, as signi- because, the Lord careth for oxen; and surely he cannot refying that the care of all the souls in a particular parish or probate a man. It may be said, the man has sinned, but the place, devolves on the minister, who is to instruct them in the or cannot. I answer, the decree of reprobation is supposed things of salvation, and lead them to heaven; or whether we to be from all eternity: and certainly a man can no more sin consider the term as implying that the souls in that district before he exists, than an ox can when he exists. are in a state of spiritual disease, and the minister is a spiri tual physician to whom the cure of these souls is intrusted, still we must consider that such a labourer is worthy of his hire; and he that preaches the Gospel, should live by the Gospel. 5. Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife] The word clovatav, is to be understood here as above in ver. 4. as implying authority or right; and authority not inerely derived from their offices, but from him who gave them that office: from the constitution of nature, and from universal propriety or the fitness of things.

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And, secondly, we find that their wives were persons of the same faith; for less can never be implied in the word sister. This is a decisive proof against the papistical celibacy of the clergy; and as to their attempts to evade the force of this text by saying that the apostles had holy women who attend ed them, and ministered to them in their peregrinations, there is no proof of it; nor could they have suffered either young women, or other men's wives, to have accompanied them in this way, without giving the most palpable occasion of scandal. And Clemens Alexandrinus has particularly remarked that the apostles carried their wives about with them, "not as wives, but as sisters, that they might minister to those who were mistresses of families; that so the doctrine of the Lord might, without reprehension or evil suspicion, enter into the apartments of the women." And in giving his finished pic ture of his Gnostic, or perfect Christian, he says; codici kat πίνει, και γαμεί εικόνας έχει τους Απος όλους, He eats, and drinks, and marries having the apostles for his example. Vid. Clem. Alex. Strom. lib. vii. c. 12.

On the propriety and excellence of marriage, and its superiority to celibacy, see the notes on chap. vii.

6. Or I only and Barnabas] Have we alone, of all the apostles, no right to be supported by our converts ? It appears from this, 1. That the apostles did not generally support them selves by their own labour. 2. That Paul and Barnabas did thus support themselves. Some of the others probably had not a business at which they could conveniently work; but Paul and Barnabas had a trade at which they could conveniently labour wherever they came.

7. Who goeth a warfare at his own charges?] These questions, which are all supposed, from the necessity and propriety of the cases, to be answered in the affirmative, tend 124

10. And he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of bu hope] Instead of o alowy ens exπidos avrov μETEXELF ET CATIA, many of the best MSS. and Versions read the passage thie, άλλων επ' ελπίδι του μετεχειν And he who thresheth is hope of partaking. "The words ans sλmidas, which are ans ted by the above, are," says Bishop Pearce, "superflucas, if not wrong; for men do not live in hope to partake of ther hope, but to partake of what was the object and end of their hope. When these words are left out, the former and late. sentence will be both of a piece, and more resembling each other; for perexe, may be understood after the first r Antoi, as well as after the last." Griesbach has left the words in question out of the text.

11. If we have sown unto you spiritual things] If we have Deen the means of bringing you into a state of salvation, by the divine doctrines which we have preached unto you: is it too much for us to expect a temporal support, when we give our selves up entirely to this work? Every man who preaches the Gospel, has a right to his own support and that of his family, while thus employed.

12. If others be partakers of this power] If those who in any matter serve you, have a right to a recompense for that service: surely we, who have served you in the most es sential matters, have a right to our support while thus en ployed in your service.

We have not used this power] Though we had this right, we have not availed ourselves of it; but have worked with our hands to bear our own charges, lest any of you should think that we preached the Gospel merely to procure a temporal support, and so be prejudiced against us; and thus prevent our success in the salvation of your souls.

13. They which minister about holy things] All the officers about the temple, whether priests, Levites, Nethinim, &c. had a right to their support while employed in its service. Ta priests partook of the sacrifices: the others had their mare tenance from tithes, first-fruits, and offerings made to the temple; for it was not lawful for them to live on the sacrificis Ilence the apostle makes the distinction between those 8.0 minister about holy things, and those who wait at the eltar 14. Even so hath the Lord ordained] This is evidently a reference to our Lord's ordination, Matt. x. 10. 7he workman is worthy of his meat. And Luke x. 7. For the labourer is worthy of his hire. And in both places it is the preacher of the Gospel of whom he is speaking. It was a maxiin among the Jews, "that the inhabitants of a town where a wise uan had made his abode, should support him; because he had forsaken the world and its pleasures, to study those things by which he might please God, and be useful to men. A ordinance to this effect, in the tract Shabbath, fol 114. 15. Neither have I written, &c.] Though I might plead the

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written these things that it should be so done unto me. for it
there better for me to die, than that any man should make my
glorying void.

16 For though I preach the Gospel, I have nothing to glory
of: for 7 necessity is laid upon me: yea, wo is unto me, if I
preach not the Gospel

17 For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward; but if
against my will, a dispensation of the Gospel is committed

18 What is my reward then? Verily that, b when I preach
the Gospel, I may make the Gospel of Christ without charge,
that I abuse not my power in the Gospel.

19 For though I bed free from all men, yet have I made
ayself servant unto all, that I might gain the more.

12 Cor. 11. 10-y Rom.1.14.-2 Ch.3.8, 14.- Ch.4.1. Gal.2.7. Phil 1.17. Col.1.
Ch.10.8 Cor 4.5.& 11.7.- Ch.7.31-d Ver. L.-e Gai,5.18.-Mart. 18. 15.
P3 Acta 16.3.& 16.18. & 21.23, zo.

anthority of God in the law, of Christ in the Gospel, the com-
non consent of our own doctors, and the usages of civil so-
ciety, yet I have not availed myself of my privileges: nor do
I now write with the intention to lay in my claims.

16. For though I preach the Gospel] I have cause of glory.
ing that I preach the Gospel free of all charges to you; but I
Cannot glory in being a preacher of the Gospel: because I am
not such either by my own skill or power: I have received
both the office, and the grace by which I execute the office,
trom God. I have not only his authority to preach, but that
authority obliges me to preach; and if I did not, I should en-
danger my salvation: yea, wo is unto me if I preach not the
Gospel. As every genuine preacher receives his commission
from God alone; it is God alone who can take it away. Wo
to that man who runs when God has not sent him; and wo to
him who refuses to run, or who ceases to run, when God has

17. For if I do this thing willingly] If I be a cordial co-
operator with God, I have a reward, an incorruptible crown,
ver. 25. Or, if I freely preach this Gospel without being bur-
thensome to any, I have a special reward; but, if I do not,
I have simply an office to fulfil into which God has put me;
and may fulfil it conscientiously, and claim my privileges at
the same time; but then I lose that special reward, which I
have in view by preaching the Gospel without charge to any.
This, and the 18th verse, have been variously translated:
Bir Norton Knatchbull, and after him Mr. Wakefield, trans-
late the two passages thus: For, if I do this willingly, I have
a reward; but if I am entrusted with an office without my
consent, what is my reward then? to make the Gospel of
Christ, whilst I preach it, without charge, in not using to the
moat, my privileges in the Gospel.

Others render the passage thus: But if I do it merely be
Cause I am obliged to it, I only discharge an office that is com-
milled to me, ver. 18. For what then shall I be rewarded?
It is for this, that preaching the Gospel of Christ, I preach
it freely, and do not insist on a claim which the Gospel itself
gites me.

18 That I abuse not my power] I am inclined to think that
karaxoncandal is to be understood here, not in the sense of
chusing, but of using to the uttermost; exacting every thing
that a man can claim by law. How many proofs have we of
this in preachers of different denominations, who insist so
strongly, and so frequently, on their privileges, as they term
them; that the people are tempted to believe they seek not
their souls' interests, but their secular goods. Such preach-
ers can do the people no good. But the people who are most
liable to think thus of their ministers, are those who are un-
willing to grant the common necessaries of life to those who
watch over them in the Lord. For, there are such people
even in the Christian church! If the preachers of the Gos-
pel were as parsimonious of the bread of life, as some con-
gregations and Christian societies are of the bread that pe-
risheth: and if the preacher gave them a spiritual nourish-
ment, as base, as mean, and as scanty as the temporal support
which they afford him, their souls must, without doubt, have
nearly a famine of the bread of life.

19. For though I be free] Although I am under no obliga-
tion to any man; yet I act as if every individual had a parti-
calar property in me; and as if I were the slave of the public.
20. Unto the Jews I became as a Jew] In Acts xvi. 3. we
find that, for the sake of the unconverted Jews, he circum-
See the note there,
cised Timothy.

To them that are under the law] To those who considered
themselves still under obligation to observe its rites and cere-
monies, though they had, in the main, embraced the Gospel,
he became as if under the same obligations; and therefore pu-
rified himself in the temple, as we find related Acts xx. 21-26.
where also see the notes.

After the first clause, To them that are under the law, as
under the law; the following words un ou auros vrò vónov,
not being myself under the law, are added by ABCDEFG., se-
veral others; the later Syriac, Sahidic, Armenian, Vulgate,
Cyril, Chrysostom, Damascenus, and
and all the Itala:
others; and on this evidence Griesbach has received them
into the text.

21. To them that are without law] The Gentiles who had
no written law though they had the law written in their
Learts: see on Rom. ii. 15.

50 Being not without law to God] Instead of Oro, To God,

to all, for their edification.

20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain
that I might gain them that are under the law;
the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law,

21 To them that are without law, as without law, (k being
might gain them that are without law.
not without law to God, but under the law to Christ,) that

221 To the weak became 1 as weak, that I might gain the
weak: m I am made all things to all men," that I might by all


That I might by all means save some.] On this clause there are some very important readings found in the MSS. and Versions. Instead of Tavros Tivas owow, that I might by all means save some; navras omow, that I might save all, is the reading of DEFG., Syriac, Vulgate, Ethiopic, all the Itala, and several of the Fathers. This reading Bishop Pearce prefers, because it is more agreeable to St. Paul's meaning here, and exactly agrees with what he says chap. x. 33. and makes his design more extensive and noble. Wakefield also prefers this reading.

23. And this I do for the Gospel's sake] Instead of rouro. opic, Vulgate, Itala, Armenian, and Suhidic: the two latter this, navra, all things, (I do all things for the Gospel's sake,, is the reading of ABCDEFG., several others, the Coptic, Ethi reading Tavra navra, all these things. Several of the Fathers have the same reading; and there is much reason to believe it to be genuine.

That I might be partaker thereof with you.] That I might and this is in all probability the meaning of το ευαγγέλιον, attain to the reward of eternal life, which it sets before me; which we translate the Gospel; and which should be render ed here, prize or reward: this is a frequent meaning of the original word, as may be seen in my preface to St. Matthew: I do all this for the sake of the prize, that I may partake of it with you.

24. They which run in a race, run all] It is sufficiently evi or narrow neck of land, which joins the Peloponnesus, or dent that the apostle alludes to the athletic exercises in the games, which were celebrated every fifth year on the isthmus, Morea, to the main land; and were thence termed the Isth mian games. The exercises were running, wrestling, har these the apostle especially alludes. ing, throwing the discus, or quoit, &c. to the three first of

But one receiveth the prize ?] The apostle places the Chrisone received the prize, though all ran: in this, if all run, all 125 tian race in contrast to the Isthmian games; in them, only will receive the prize: therefore, he says, so run, that ye may

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