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Important directions given

CHAPTER XI.

to the church at Corinth.
32. Give none offence, &c.] Scrupulously avoid giving any with the drunkard? Do they partake of the Lord Jesus who
cause of offence either to the unconverted Jews, or the un-are under the influence of pride, self-will, hatred, censorious-
converted Gentiles, so as to prejudice them against Christian ness, &c. and who carry their self-importance, and worldly
ity: nor to the church of God, made up of converts from the spirit, even into the house and worship of God?
above parties.
33. Eren as I please all men] Act as I do: forgetting my.ligious man, lead to covetousness and theft in a godly man,
self, my own interests, conveniences, ease, and comfort, I la-
bour for the welfare of others; and particularly that they may
be saved How blessed and amiable was the spirit and con-
duct of this holy man!

This chapter has already presented the serious reader with
a variety of maxims for his regulation-1. As to his own pri
vale walk-2. His domestic duties-And, 3. his connexion
with the church of God. Let us review some of the principal
parts.

1. We should be on our guard against what are called little
sins; and all occasions and excitements to sin. Take heed
what company you frequent. One thing, apparently harm
less, may lead, by almost imperceptible links, to sins of the
deepest die. See the example in this chapter-1. The people
sat down to eat and to drink. 2. They rose up to play, dance,
and sing and, 3. They committed fornication, and brought
upon themselves swift destruction."

2 However conscious we may be of our own sincerity and
uprightness, we should ever distrust ourselves. God has
tnade nothing independent of himself; the soul has no prin-
ciple of self-dependence, either in itself or in its attainments:
it is wise, powerful, and happy, only while it is depending on
Infinite wisdom, unlimited power, and endless mercy.
3. The Gentiles were in communion with demons, by their
idolatrous services. In what communion are those who feed
themselves without fear; who eat with the glutton and drink

4. A spirit of curiosity, too much indulged, may, in an irre
toa troublesome and unscriptural scrupulosity of conscience;
productive of nothing but uneasiness to itself, and disturbance
to others. Simplicity of heart saves from this, and is an ex-
cellent gift.

5. In many actions we have a two-fold rule: the testimony
of God and charity: and, in many things, charity is the best
interpreter of the testimony. The testimony often permits
what charity forbids, because circumstances, in time, place,
&c. may render a thing improper on one occasion that might
be proper on another.

6. Pious Quesnel has well said, Every thing honours God
when it is done for his sake; every thing dishonours him
when any ultimate end is proposed besides his glory. It is
an unchangeable principle of the Christian morality, That all
comes from God by his love; and all should be returned to
him by ours. This rule we should keep inviolate.
7. Though many of the advices given in this chapter, ap
pear to respect the Corinthians alone, yet there is none of
them that is not applicable to Christians in general, in cer-
tain circumstances. God has given no portion of his word
to any people or age exclusively: the whole is given to the
church universal in all ages of the world. In reading this
epistle let us seriously consider what parts of it apply to our
selves; and if we are disposed to appropriate its promises, let
us act conscientiously, and inquire how many of its reprehen.
sions we may fairly appropriate also.

CHAPTER XI.

The apostle reprehends the Corinthians for several irregularities in their manner of conducting public worship; the
men praying or prophesying with their heads covered; and the women with their heads uncovered; contrary to custom,
propriety, and decency, 1-6. Reasons why they should act differently, 7-16. They are also reproved for their divi
sions and heresies, 17-19. And for the irregular manner in which they celebrated the Lord's Supper, 20-22. The pro
per manner of celebrating this holy rite, laid down by the apostle, 23-26. Directions for a profitable receiving of the
Lord's Supper, and avoiding the dangerous consequences of communicating unworthily, 27–34. [A. M. 4060. X. Ď. 56.
A. U. C. 809. An. Imp. Neronis Cæs. 3.]

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NOTES.-Verse 1. Be ye followers of me] This verse cer-
tainly belongs to the preceding chapter, and is here out of all
proper place and connexion.

2 That ye remember me in all things] It appears that the
apostle had previously given them a variety of directions re-
lative to the matters mentioned here; that some had paid
strict attention to them, and that others had not; and that
contentions and divisions were the consequences, which he
here reproves and endeavours to rectify. While Paul and
Apollos had preached among them, they had undoubtedly
prescribed every thing that was necessary to be observed in
the Christian worship: but it is likely that those who joined
in idol festivals, wished also to introduce something relative
to the mode of conducting the idol worship into the Christian
assembly; which they might think was an improvement on
the apostle's plan.

3. The head of every man is Christ] The apostle is speak
ing particularly of Christianity and its ordinances: Christ is
the head, or author of this religion; and is the Creator, Pre-
server, and Lord of every man. The man also is the lord or
head of the woman; and the head or Lord of Christ, as medi-
ator between God and man, is God the Father. Here is the
order-God sends his Son Jesus Christ to redeem man;
Christ comes and lays down his life for the world; every man
who receives Christianity, confesses that Jesus Christ is
Lord, to the glory of God the Father: and every believing
woman will acknowledge, according to Genesis iii. 16. that
God has placed her in a dependance on, and subjection to, the
man. So far, there is no difficulty in this passage.

4. Praying or prophesying] Any person who engages in
public acts in the worship of God, whether prayer, singing,
or exhortation; for we learn from the apostle himself, that
#poonrevel, to prophesy, signifies to speak unto men to edi.
fication, exhortation, and comfort, chap. xiv. 3. And this
comprehends all that we understand by exhortation, or even
preaching.

Having his head covered] With his cap or turban on, dis-
honoureth his head; because the head being covered, was a
sign of subjection; and while he was employed in the public
ministration of the word, he was to be considered as a repre-
sentative of Christ; and on this account, his being vailed or
covered, would be improper. The decision of the apostle was

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head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all
5 But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her
one as if she were k shaven.

6 For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn :
but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let
her be covered.

7 For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch
as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the
glory of the man.

John 14 28. Chapter 3 23. & 15 27, Phil.2.7, 8,9-h Chapter 12 10, 29, & 14 1
&c.- Acts 21.9-k Deut. 1. 12-1 Numbers 3.13. Deut. 225,-m Genesis 1.26, 27
& 5.1. & 9.6.

in point blank hostility to the canons of the Jews, for they
would not suffer a man to pray unless he was veiled; for
which they give this reason: "He should veil himself to
show that he is ashamed before God; and unworthy, with
open face, to behold him." See much in Lightfoot on this
point.

5. But every woman that prayeth, &c.] Whatever may be
the meaning of praying and prophesying, in respect to the
man, they have precisely the same meaning in respect to the
woman. So that some women, at least, as well as some men,
might speak to others to edification, and exhortation, and
comfort. And this kind of prophesying, or teaching, was pre-
dicted by Joel, ii. 28. and referred to by Peter, Acts ii. 17. Ånd
had there not been such gifts bestowed on women, the pro-
phecy could not have had its fulfilment. The only difference
inarked by the apostle was, the man had his head uncovered,
because he was the representative of Christ: the woman had
hers covered, because she was placed, by the order of God, in
a state of subjection to the man; and because it was a custom,
both among the Greeks and Romans, and among the Jews an
express law, that no woman should be seen abroad without a
reil. This was, and is, a common custom through all the
East; and none but public prostitutes go without veils. And,
if a woman should appear in public without a veil, she would
dishonour her head, her husband. And she must appear
like to those women who had their hair shorn off as the pu
nishment of whoredom, or adultery.

Tacitus informs us, Germ. 19, that, considering the great-
ness of the population, adulteries were very rare among the
Germans; and, when any woman was found guilty, she was
punished in the following way: accisis crinibus nudatam
coram propinquis expellit domo maritus: "having cut off her
hair, and stripped her before her relatives, her husband turned
her out of doors." And we know that the woman suspected
of adultery, was ordered, by the law of Moses, to be stripped
of her veil, Numb. v. 18. Women reduced to a state of servi
tude, or slavery, had their hair cut off: so we learn from
Achilles Tatius. Clitophon says, concerning Lencippe, who
was reduced to a state of slavery, enpara deduvλevker, ynu
εσκαπσεν, σεσυληται της κεφαλής το κάλλος, την κούραν ορας
lib. viii. cap. 5. "she was sold for a slave, she dug in the
ground, and her hair being shorn off, her head was feprived

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8 For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the
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He is the image and glory of God] He is God's vicegerent in this lower world; and, by the authority which he has received from his Maker, he is his representative among the creatures, and exhibits, more than any other part of the creation, the glory and perfections of the Creator.

But the woman is the glory of the man] As the man is among the creatures, the representative of the glory and perfections of God; so that the fear of him, and the dread of him, are on every beast of the field, &c. so the woman is in the house and family, the representative of the power and authority of the man. I believe this to be the meaning of the apostle; and, that he is speaking here principally concerning power and authority; and skill to use them. It is certainly not the moral image of God, nor his celestial glory, of which he speaks in this verse.

8. For the man is not of the woman] Bp. Pearce translates, ου γαρ εσιν ανηρ εκ γυναικός, αλλα γυνή εξ ανδρος : thus-"For, the man doth not BELONG to the woman, but the woman to the man." use in chap. xii. 15. If the foot shall say, ove su EX TOV σopaAnd vindicates this sense of ex, by its TPS, I am not of the body; i. e. I do not belong to the body. He observes that, as the verb est is in the present tense, and will not allow that we should understand this verse of something that is past, yap, for, in the following verse, which is unnoticed by our translators, will have its full propriety and meaning, because it introduces a reason why the woman belongs to the man, and not the man to the woman. His meaning is, that the man does not belong to the woman, as if she was the principal; but the woman belongs to the man in that view. 9. Neither was the man created, &c.] Katyap ovK EKTITON: for the man was not created upon the woman's account. The reason is plain from what is mentioned above; and from the original creation of woman, she was made for the man, to be his proper or suitable helper.

10. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.] There are few portions in the sacred writings that have given rise to such a variety of conjectures and explanations, and is less understood than this verse; and ver. 29. of chap. xv. Our translators were puzzled with it; and have inserted here one of the largest marginal readings found any where in their work: but this is only on the words power on her head, which they interpret thus: that is, a covering, in sign that she is under the power of her husband. But, admitting this marginal reading to be a satisfactory solution so far as it goes, it by no means removes all the difficulty. Mr. Locke ingenuously acknowledged that he did not understand the meaning of the words; and almost every critic and learned man has a different explanation. Some have endeavoured to force out a meaning by altering the text. The emendation of Mr. Toup, of Cornwall, is the most remarkable: he reads tovoa, going out, instead of εovoia, power; wherefore the woman, when she goes out, should have a veil on her head. Whatever ingenuity there may appear in this emendation, the consideration that it is not acknowledged by any MS., or Version, or primitive writer, is sufficient proof against it. Bishop Pearce, have written best on the subject; in which Dr. Lightfoot, Schoettgen, and 132

but woman for man.

10 For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.

11 Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, sign that she is under the power of her husband,-r Eccles.5.6-8 Gal.3.29 neither the woman without the man in the Lord. they allow that there are many difficulties: the latter contends, 1. That the original should be read Wherefore the woman ought husband over the wife. The word power standing for the to have a power upon her head: that is, the power of the sign or token of that power which was a covering or teil Theophylact explains the word, To Tov sovorazecbai ovpßokov. TOUTESI, TO Kaλvμμa, "the symbol of being under power; that is, a veil or covering." And Photius explains it thus, 775 υποταγης σύμβολον το επι της κεφαλης καλυμμα φέρειν; to tea a veil on the head is the symbol of subjection. It is no unusual thing, in the Old and New Testaments, for the signs and tokens of things to be called by the names of the things them xvii. 10, 13. though it were only the sign of it. selves; for thus, circumcision is called the covenant, in Gen.

pose that, by these, the apostle means the fallen angels, or devils; others the governors of the church; and others those 2. The word angels presents another difficulty: some supwho were deputed among the Jews to espouse a virgin in the name of a lover. All these senses the learned Bishop rejects; and believes that the apostle uses the word angels in its most obvious sense, for the heavenly angels; and that he speaks according to the notion which then prevailed among Jews, men, and particularly were present in their religions assemthat the holy angels interested themselves in the affairs of blies, as the cherubim, their representation, were present in the temple. Thus we read in Ecclus. v. 6. Neither say thou before the ANGEL, it was an error; and in 1 Tim. v. 21. 1 elect ANGELS, &c. Parallel to these is what Agrippa says in his oration to the Jews, Josephus, War, b. ii. chap. 16. I procharge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the test before God, your holy temple, and all the ANGELS of hea ven, &c. All which passages suppose, or were spoken to those who supposed that the angels know what passes here the Jews; and, if so, St. Paul might speak according to the common opinion. upon earth. The notion, whether just or not, prevailed among

which shows that this verse is a conclusion from what the 3. Another difficulty lies in the phrase dia Touro, wherefore; that his conclusion from the foregoing argument, ought to have apostle was arguing before; which we may understand thus, the more weight, upon account of the presence, real or supposed, of the holy angels, at their religious meetings. See Bp. Pearce in loc.

trine of the presence of angelic beings in religious assemblies, is legitimate; but what difficulty can there be in this, if we The learned bishop is not very willing to allow that the doc take the words of the apostle in another place, Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister to them that shall be in which they can render more essential services to the fol heirs of salvation? Heb. i. 14. And perhaps there is no time lowers of God, than when they are engaged in divine ordi nances. On the whole, the bishop's sense of the passage, and man, I conclude, that the woman should have on her head a paraphrase, stand thus: "And because of this superiority in the veil, the mark of her husband's power over her; especially in the religious assemblies, where the angels are supposed to be invisibly present."

reading: and the MSS. leave the verse nearly as it stands in The ancient Versions make little alteration in the common the common printed editions. The Armenian has a word that her head should be veiled. The common editions of the Vulgate have potestatem, power; but in an ancient edition of the answers to umbram, a shade or covering. The Ethiopic, Vulgate, perhaps one of the first, if not the first, ever printed, 2 vols. folio, sine ulla nota anni, &c. the verse stands thus: Ideo debet mulier velamen habere super caput suum: et propter angelos. My old MS. translation seems to have been taken homan schal haue a veyl on her heupd: and for aungels. Some copies of the Itala have also relamen, a veil. from a MS. which had the same reading: herfore the nothing, that so judicious a critic advances, should be lightly regarded. 1. He contends that skovetav, occurs no where in In his view of this text, Kypke differs from all others; and veil, is understood, and must, in the translation of the pas sage, be supplied. 2. He directs that a comma be placed after the sense of veil, and yet he supposes that the word kauppa, &votay, and that it be construed with opeidet, ought; after which he translates the verse thus: Propterea mulier potestati obnoxia est, ita ut velamen in capite habeat, propter angelos; On this account the woman is subject to power, so that she should have a veil on her head, because of the angels. 3. He contends that both Latins and Greeks use debere and odstActv, elegantly to express that to which one is obnoxious or liable. So Horace:-tu, nisi ventis Take heed lest thou owe a laughing stock to the winds; i. e. Debes ludibrium cave. lest thou become the sport of the winds; for to these thou art Carm. lib. i. Od. xiv. ver. 15. και πολλην οφείλοντες αισχυνην απήλθον εκ της αγοράς, ther now exposing thyself. So Dionys. Hal. Ant. lib. iii. p. 205

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12 For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.

13 Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered!

14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?

15 But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her hair is given her for a "covering.

16 But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.

17 Now, in this that I declare unto you I praise you not, that ye come together not for the better, but for the worse.

men, uncovered. 20 When ye come together therefore into one place, * this is not to eat the Lord's supper.

21 For in eating every one taketh before other his own supper and one is hungry, and d another is drunken.

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22 What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and f shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this ? I praise you not.

23 For h I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread:

24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do

18 For, first of all, when ye come together in the church, 1
hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly be-k in remembrance of me.
here it.

. For there must be also heresies among you, b that they
which are approved may be made manifest among you.

Rm 11.35-u Or, veil v 1 Tim.6.4 Ch.7.17. & 14.33.x h 1. 10,11, 12.& 31-7 Or, schisms. Matt 18.7. Luke 17.1. Acts 20.30. 1 Tim.4.1. 2 Pet.2.1,2Or, sects. -b Luke 2.35. 1 John 2.19. See Deu. 13.3,

departed from the market exposed to great dishonour. So
Euripides, opetλw ovi Bλaßny, I am exposed to thy injury.
4. fe contends that the words taken in this sense agree
perfectly with the context and with dia rovro, wherefore, in
this verse. "Because the man was not created for the wo-
man, but the woman for the man, therefore she is subject to
his authority; and should have a veil on her head as the token
of that subjection: and particularly before the holy angels,
who are present in the congregations of the saints."

For Dr. Lightfoot's opinion, that by angels, we are to understand the paranymphs, or messengers who came on the part of others, to look out for proper spouses for their friends, I must refer to his works, vol. ii. fol. p. 772. The reader has now before him every thing that is likely to cast light on this difficult subject; and he must either adopt what he judges to be best, or else think for himself.

11. Neither is the man without the woman] The apostle seems to say, I do not intimate any disparagement of the female sex, by insisting on the necessity of her being under the power or authority of the man: for they are both equally dependant on each other: in the Lord, ev Kypto: but instead of this reading, Theodoret has Ev xoops, in the world. Probably the apostle ineans that the human race is continued by an especial providence of God. Others think, that he means men and women equally make a Christian society; and in it have equal rights and privileges.

12. For as the woman is of the man] For as the woman was first formed out of the side of man; man has ever since been formed out of the womb of the woman; but they, as all other created things, are of God.

25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.

c Or, ye cannot eat d 2 Pet. 2. 13. Jude 12.-e Ch. 10. -f James 2 6-g Or, them that are poor.-h Ch.15.3. Gal. 1. 1, 11, 12.-i Maut 5.26. Mark 14.22. Luke 22.19,- Or, for a remembrance.

ble. Nature and the apostle speak the same language; we may account for it as we please.

16. But if any man seem to be contentious] El de Tis doKEL provεtkos cival. If any person sets himself up as a wrangler, puts himself forward as a defender of such points, that a woman may pray, or teach, with her head uncovered, and that a man inay, without reproach, have long hair; let him know, that we have no such custom as either; nor are they sanctioned by any of the churches of God, whether among the Jews or the Gentiles. We have already seen, that the verb doket, which we translate to seem, generally strengthens and increases the sense. From the attention that the apostle has paid to the subject of veils and hair, it is evident that it must have occasioned considerable disturbance in the church of Corinth. They have produced evil effects in much later times 17. Now in this-I praise you not] In the beginning of this epistle, the apostle did praise them, for their attention in gene. ral to the rules he had laid down; see ver. 2. but here he is obliged to condemn certain irregularities which had crept in among them, particularly relative to the celebration of the Lord's supper. Through some false teaching, which they had received in the absence of the apostle, they appear to have celebrated it precisely in the same way the Jews did their pass-over. That, we know, was a regular meal, only accompanied with certain peculiar circumstances and ceremonics; two of these ceremonies were eating bread solemnly broken, and drinking a cup of wine, called the cup of blessing. Now, it is certain, that our Lord has taken these two things, and made them expressive of the crucifixion of his body, and the shedding of his blood, as an atonement for the sins of mankind. The teachers which had crept into the Corinthian institution: for the celebration of the Lord's supper, appears to have been made among them a part of an ordinary meal. The people came together, and, it appears, brought their provisions with them; some had much, others had less : some ate to excess, others had scarcely enough to suffice nature. was hungry, and the other was drunken: pelvei, was filled to the full; this is the sense of the word in many places of Scripture. At the conclusion of this irregular meal, they appear to have done something in reference to our Lord's insti tution; but more resembling the Jewish pass-over. These irregularities, connected with so many indecencies, the apostle reproves; for, instead of being benefited by the divine ordinance, they were injured; they came together not for the better, but for the worse.

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18. There be divisions among you] They had extopara, schisms among them; the old parties were kept up, even in the place where they assembled to eat the Lord's supper. The Paulinians, the Kephites, and the Apollonians, continued to be distinct parties, and ate their ineals separately, even in the same house.

13. Judge in yourselves] Consider the subject in your own con.non sense; and then say whether it be decent for a wo-church, appear to have perverted the whole of this divine man to pray in public without a veil on her head? The heathen priestesses prayed or delivered their oracles bare-headed, or with dishevelled hair, non compte mansere coma, as in the case of the Cumæn Sibyl, Æn. vi. ver. 48, and otherwise in great disorder; to be conformed to them would be very disgraceful to Christian women: and in reference to such things as these, the apostle appeals to their sense of honour and decency. 14. Doth not-nature-teach you, that, if a man have long kair] Nature certainly teaches us, by bestowing it, that it is proper for women to have long hair; and it is not so with men. The hair of the male rarely grows like that of the female uniess art is used; and even then it bears but a scanty proportion to the former. Hence it is truly womanish to have long hair; and it is a shame to the man who affects it. In ancient times, the people of Achaia, the province in which Corinth stood, and the Greeks in general, were noted for their long hair, and hence called by Homer, in a great variety of places, kapnkopoWTES AXntot, the long-haired Greeks or Achaans. Soldiers, in different countries, have been distinguished for their long hair: but whether this can be said to their praise or blame, or whether Homer uses it always as a term of respect, when he applies it to the Greeks, I shall not wait here to inquire. Long hair was certainly not in repute among the Jews. The Nazarites let their hair grow, but it was a token of humiliation: and it is possible that St. Paul had this in view. There were, consequently, two reasons why the apostle should condemn this practice-1. Because it was a sign of humiliation-2. Because it was romanish. After all, it is possible that St. Paul may refer to dressed, friz zled, and curled hair, which shallow and effeminate men might have affected in that time, as they do in this. Perhaps there is not a sight more ridiculous in the eye of common sense than a high dressed, curled, cued, and powdered head, with which the operator must have taken considerable pains, and the silly patient lost much time and comfort in submitting to what all but senseless custom must call an indignity and degradation. Hear nature, common sense, and reason; and they will inform you that if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him.

15. But if a woman have long hair] The Author of their being has given a larger proportion of hair to the head of women than to that of men: and to them it is an especial ornament; and may, in various cases, serve as a reil.

19. There must be also heresies] Alpereis: not a common consent of Me members of the church, either in the doctrines of the Gospel, or in the ceremonies of the Christian religion. Their difference in religious opinion, led to a difference in their religious practice; and thus the Church of God, that should have been one body, was split into sects and parties. The divisions and the heresies, sprung out of each other. I have spoken largely on the word heresy, in Acts v. 17. to which place I beg leave to refer the reader.

20. This is not to eat the Lord's supper.] They did not come together to eat the Lord's supper exclusively, which they should have done, and not have made it a part of an ordinary meal.

21. Every one taklah before—his own supper] They had a grand feast, though the different sects kept in parties by them. selves; but all took as ample a supper as they could provide, (each bringing his own provisions with him,) before they took what was called the Lord's supper. See on ver. 17.

22. Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in?] They should have taken their ordinary meal at home; and have come together in the church to celebrate the Lord's supper. Despise ye the church of God] Ye render the sacred assembly and the place contemptible by your conduct; and ye It is a certain fact, that a man's long hair renders him con- show yourselves destitute of that respect which ye owe to the temptible; and a woman's long hair renders her more amia-place set apart for divine worship.

The danger of eating the

I. CORINTHIANS.
26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye
do show the Lord's death till he come.

27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink
this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body
and blood of the Lord.

28 But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that
bread, and drink of that cup.

29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and
drinketh P damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's
body.

1 Or, show ye-m John 14.3.& 21.22. Acts 1.11. Chap. 4.5.& 15.23 1 Thess.4. 16, 2 Thess. 1.10. Jude 14. Rev. 1.7.-n Num.9.10, 13. John 6.51, 63, 64. & 13.27. Chap. 10.21.

And shame them that have not?] Tovs un exovras, them that are poor, not them who had not victuals at that time; but those who were so poor as to be incapable of furnishing themselves as others had done. See the note on Matt. xiii. 12. 23. I have received of the Lord] It is possible that several of the people at Corinth did receive the bread and wine of the eucharist, as they did the paschal bread and wine; as a mere commemoration of an event. And, as our Lord had, by his institution, consecrated that bread and wine, not to be the means of commemorating the deliverance from Egypt, and their joy on the account; but their deliverance from sin and death, by his passion and cross: therefore, the apostle states, that he had received from the Lord what he delivered, viz.:that the eucharistic bread and wine were to be understood of the accomplishment of that, of which the paschal lamb was the type: the body broken for them; the blood shed for them.

The Lord Jesus-took bread] See the whole of this account collated with the parallel passages in the four Gospels, amply explained in my Discourse on the Eucharist; and in the notes on Matt. xxvi.

26. Ye do show the Lord's death] As in the pass-over they showed forth the bondage they had been in, and the redemption they had received from it: so, in the eucharist they showed forth the sacrificial death of Christ, and the redemption from sin derived from it.

27. Whosoever shall eat-and drink-unworthily] To put a final end to controversies and perplexities relative to these words and the context, let the reader observe, that to eat and drink the bread and wine in the Lord's supper unworthily, is to eat and drink as the Corinthians did; who eat it not in reference to Jesus Christ's sacrificial death; but rather in such a way as the Israelites did the pass-over, which they celebrated in remembrance of their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. Likewise, these mongrel Christians at Corinth, nsed it as a kind of historical commemoration of the death of Christ; and did not, in the whole institution, discern the Lord's body and blood as a sacrificial offering for sin: and, besides, in their celebration of it, they acted in a way utterly unbecoming the gravity of a sacred ordinance. Those who acknowledge it as a sacrificial offering, and receive it in remembrance of God's love to them in sending his Son into the world, can neither bring damnation upon themselves by so doing, nor eat nor drink unworthily. See our translation of this verse vindicated, at the end of the chapter.

Shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.] If he use it irreverently, if he deny that Christ suffered unjustly, (for of some such persons the apostle must be understood to speak,) then he, in effect, joins issue with the Jews in their condeinnation and crucifixion of the Lord Jesus; and renders himself guilty of the death of our blessed Lord. Some, however, understand the passage thus; is guilty, i. e. eats and drinks unworthily, and brings on himself that punishment entioned ver. 30.

28. Let a man examine himself] Let him try whether he has proper faith in the Lord Jesus; and whether he discerns the Lord's body; and whether he duly considers that the bread and wine point out the crucified body and spilt blood of Christ?

29. Eateth and drinketh damnation] Kpipa, judgment, punishment; and yet this is not unto damnation, for the judgment, or punishment, inflicted upon the disorderly and the profane, was intended for their emendation; for, in ver. 32. it is said, when we are judged, pivoμevot, we are chasten ed, raidevopeda, corrected as a father does his children, that we should not be condemned with the world.

30. For this cause] That they partook of this sacred ordinance without discerning the Lord's body: many are weak and sickly: it is hard to say whether these words refer to the consequences of their own intemperance, or to some extraordinary disorders inflicted immediately by God himself. That there were disorders of the most reprehensible kind among these people at this sacred supper, the preceding verses sufficiently point out: and, after such excesses, many might be weak and sickly among them; and many might sleep, i. e. die; for continual experience shows us, that many fall victims to their own intemperance. However, acting as they did, in this solemn and awful sacrament, they might have "provoked God to plague then, with divers diseases, and sundry kinds of death." Communion service.

31. If we would judge ourselves] If, having acted improperly, we condemnn our conduct, and humble ourselves, we shall not be judged, i. e. punished, for the sin we have com

[graphic]

Lord's supper unworthily.

30 For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, 31 For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. and many sleep. 32 But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world. 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another.

come not together unto "condemnation. And the rest, will 34 And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye I set in order when w I come.

02 Cor. 13.5 Gal. 6.4.-p Or, judgment. Rom. 13.2-q Pealm 32.5. 1 John 1,8r Paa 91. 12, 13. Heb. 125-11-8 Ver.21- Ver 22-u Or, judgment.- Chap.7.17. Tit. 1.5.-w Chap. 4.19.

ry one for another; do not eat and drink in parties, as ye have done heretofore; and do not connect it with any other meal 33. When ye come together to eat] The Lord's supper, tarhouse of God to eat an ordinary meal, let him eat at home; take that in his own house which is necessary for the support 34. And if any man hunger] Let him not come to the of his body before he comes to that sacred repast; where he should have the feeding of his soul alone in view.

avoid the curse that must fall on such worthless communi
cants as those above-mentioned; and that ye may get that
That ye come not together unto condemnation] That ye may
especial blessing which every one that discerns the Lord's
body, in the eucharist, must receive.

lative to this business, to which you have referred in your
letter, I will regulate when I come to visit you; as, God per-
The rest will I set in order, &c.] All the other matters re-
year after this, as is generally believed.
mitting, I fully design. The apostle did visit them about one

cult chapter, that I have left neither room nor necessity for
I have already been so very particular on this long and difi-
that is requisite.
many supplementary observations. A few remarks are all

jection; especially in the church. Those who are impatient
of rule, are generally those who wish to tyrannize. And
1. The apostle inculcates the necessity of order and sub-
whether civil or ecclesiastical, are those who wish to have
the power in their own hands, and would infallibly abuse it
those who are loudest in their complaints against authority,
if they had. They alone who are willing to obey, are caps-
ble of rule; and he who can rule well, is as willing to obey as
to govern. Let all be submissive and orderly; let the woman
know that the man is head and protector; let the man know
that Christ is his head and redeemer; and the gift of God's
endless mercy for the salvation of a lost world.

vered in the church, or Christian assembly. If he saw the manner in which Christian women now dress, and appear in 2. The apostle insisted on the woman having her head ca the ordinances of religion, what would he think? What would he say? How could he even distinguish the Christian from the infidel? And if they who are in Christ, are new creatures, and the persons who ordinarily appear, in religious assem blies, are really new creatures, as they profess, in general, to be in Christ; he might reasonably inquire, if these are new creatures, what must have been their appearance when they were house of God to exhibit ourselves? Wretched is that man or old creatures? Do we dress to be seen? And do we go to the woman who goes to the house of God to be seen by any but God himself.

rity; how unbecoming this sacred ordinance, to be the subject of dispute, party spirit, and division! Those who make 3. The Lord's supper may be well termed the feast of che it such, must answer for it to God. Every man who believes in Christ as his atoning sacrifice, should as frequently as he minister of Christ is bound to administer it to every man who is seeking the salvation of his soul, as well as to all believers. can, receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper. And every Let no man dare to oppose this ordinance; and let every man receive it according to the institution of Christ.

chapter, Whosoever shall eat this bread AND drink this cup 4. Against the fidelity of our translation of ver. 27. of this unworthily, several Popish writers have made heavy com plaints, and accused the Protestants of wilful corruption; as both the Greek and Vulgate texts, instead of xat and et, AND have and vel, OR: Whosoever shall eat this bread on drink this cup. As this criticism is made to countenance their unthe ground of the complaint. Supposing even this objection to be valid, their cause can gain nothing by it while the 26th scriptural communion in one kind, it may be well to examine and 28th verses stand both in the Greek text and Vulgate, as they now do; For, as often as ye eat this bread AND drink this cup, &c.-Let him eat of that bread AND drink of that cup. But although, OR, be the reading of the common printed text, Kat, AND, is the reading of the Coder Alexandringsand the Coder Claromontanos, two of the best MSS. m the world; as also of the Coder Lincolniensis, 2. and the Coder Petavianus, 3. both MSS. of the first character: it is also the reading of the ancient Syriac, all the Arabic, the Coptic, the margin of the latter Syriac, the Ethiopic, different MSS. of the Vulgate, and of one in my own possession; and of Cie text of the Vulgate has vel, on, yet this is a departure from the original editions, which were all professedly taken from mens, Chromatius, and Cassiodorus. Though the present the best MSS. In the famous Bible without date, place, or printer's name, 2 vols. fol. two columns, and forty-five lines in each, supposed by many to be the first Bible ever printed,

Diversities of spiritual

CHAPTER XII

gifts and administrations. the text stands thus: Itaque quicunque manducaveril panem | supper; it may be necessary to show that without the cup ET biberit calicem, &c.-Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread AND drink this cup, &c. here is no vel, or. The Bible printed by Fust, 1462, the first Bible with a date, has the saine reading. Did the Protestants corrupt these texts? In the editio princeps of the Greek Testament, printed by the authority of Cardinal Ximenes at Complutum, and published by the anthority of Pope Leo X. though, OR, stands in the Greek text; vet in the opposite column which contains the Vulgate, and in the opposite line, ET, and, is found, and not VEL, or; though the Greek text would have authorized the editor to have made this change: but he conscientiously preserved the text of his Vulgate. Did the Protestants corrupt this Cathoolic tert also? Indeed, so little design had any of those who differed from the Romish church, to make any alteration here, that even Wiclif, having a faulty Ms. of the Vulgate by him, which read rel instead of et, followed that faulty MS. and translated, And so who ever schal ete the breed or drinke the cup.

That Kat, AND, is the true reading; and not , OR, both MSS. and Versions sufficiently prove: also that et, not vel, is the proper reading in the Vulgate, those original editions formed by Roman Catholics, and one of them by the highest authority in the Papal church, fully establish: likewise those MSS., Versions, Fathers, and original editions, must be allowed to be not only competent, but also unsuspected and incontro

vertible witnesses.

But as this objection to our translation is brought forward to vindicate the withholding the cup from the laity in the Lord's

there can be no eucharist. With respect to the bread, our
Lord had simply said, Take, eat, this is my body; but con-
cerning the cup, he says, Drink ye all of this; for as this
pointed out the very essence of the institution, viz. the blood
of atonement, it was necessary that each should have a
particular application of it, therefore he says, Drink ye ALL
of THIS. By this we are taught that the cup is essential to the
sacrament of the Lord's supper; so that they who deny the
cup to the people, sin against God's institution; and they
who receive not the cup, are not partakers of the body and
blood of Christ. If either could, without mortal prejudice, be
omitted, it might be the bread; but the cup, as pointing out
the blood, poured out, i. e. the life, by which alone the great
sacrificial act is performed, and remission of sins procured,
is absolutely indispensable. On this ground it is demonstra
ble, that there is not a Popish priest under heaven, who de-
nies the cup to the people, (and they all do this,) that can be
said to celebrate the Lord's supper at all; nor is there one
of their votaries that ever received the holy sacrament. All
pretensions to this is an absolute farce, so long as the cup,
the emblem of the atoning blood, is denied. How strange is
it, that the very men who plead so much for the bare literal
meaning of this is my body, in the preceding verse, should de-
ny all meaning to drink ye all of this cup, in this verse.
though Christ has, in the most positive manner enjoined it,
they will not permit one of the laity to taste it! See the whole
of this argument, at large, in my Discourse on the Nature
and Design of the Eucharist.

CHAPTER XII.

And

The apostle proceeds to the question of the Corinthians concerning spiritual gifts, 1. He calls to their remembrance their Shows that there are diversities of gifts which proceed from the former state, and how they were brought out of it, 2, 3. Spirit, 4. Diversities of administrations which proceed from the Lord Jesus, 5. And diversities of operations which proThe relation which the members of the body eed from God, 6. What these gifts are, and how they are dispensed, 7-11. Christ is the Head, and the church his mem bers; and this is pointed out under the similitude of the human body, 12, 13. have to each other; and how necessary their mutual support, 14-26. The members in the church, or spiritual body and We should earnestly covet the best gifts, 31. [A. M. 4060. A. D. 56. A. U. C. 809. An. Imp. their respective offices, 27-30. Neronis Cæs. 3.]

N

TOW concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant.

2 Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.

3 Wherefore I give you to understand, d that no man speak. ing by the Spirit of God, calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 4 Now, there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit.

Chap. 14.1, 37-b Chap. 6. 11. Ephes 2 11, 19. 1 Thess. 1 9. Tit.3.3. 1 Pet.4.3Psalm 115.5.-d Mark 9.33. 1 John 4.2, 3.-e Or, anathema-f Matt. 16. 17. John 1A. 2 Cor.3.6.

NOTES.-Verse 1. Now concerning spiritual gifts] This was a subject about which they appear to have written to the apostle; and concerning which there were probably some contentions among them. The words veр TV Vεvarikov may as well be translated concerning spiritual persons, as spiritwal gifts; and indeed the former agrees much better with the context.

I would not have you ignorant.] I wish you fully to know whence all such gifts come, and for what end they are given, that each person may serve the church in the capacity in which God has placed him; that there may be no misunderstandings, and no schism in the body.

5 And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord.

6 And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.

7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.

8 For to one is given by the Spirit," the word of wisdom; to another, the word of knowledge by the same Spirit ;

Rom. 124, &c Heb.2.4. 1 Pet. 4 10.-h Eph.4.4.-i Rom. 12.6, 7, 8. Eph.4.11.k Or, ministeries.-1 Eph.1.23-m Rom. 12.6,7,8. Ch.14.26. Eph.4.7. Pet.4. 10, 11.-n Ch.2.6,7.-0 Ch.1.5. & 13.2. 2 Cor.8.7.

and a person worthy of death, &c. as the Jews did: therefore the Jews were no longer under the inspiration of the Spirit of God. This appears to be the meaning of the apostle in this place; No man speaking by the Spirit, &c.

And that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord] Nor can we demonstrate this person to be the Messiah and the Saviour of men, but by the Holy Ghost, enabling us to speak with di vers tongues, to work miracles: He attesting the truth of our doctrines to them that hear, by enlightening their minds, changing their hearts, and filling them with the peace and love of God.

4. There are diversities of gifts] Xaptoparov, gracious en 2. Ye were Gentiles] Previously to your conversion to the dowments; leading to miraculous results; such as the gift of Christian faith; ye were heathens, carried away, not guided prophecy, speaking different tongues, &c. And these all came by reason or truth, but hurried by your passions into a sense-by the extraordinary influences of the Holy Spirit. less worship, the chief part of which was calculated only to excite and gratify animal propensities.

Dumb idols] Though often supplicated, could never return an answer; so that not only the image could not speak, but the god or demon pretended to be represented by it, could not speak: a full proof that an idol was nothing in the world. 3. No man speaking by the Spirit of God] It was granted on all hands, that there could be no religion without divine inspiration; because God alone, could make his will known to men: hence heathenism pretended to this inspiration. Judaism had it in the law and the prophets; and it was the very essence of the Christian religion. The heathen priests and priestesses pretended to receive, by inspiration from their god, the answers which they gave to their votaries. And, as far as the people believed their pretensions, so far they were led by their teaching.

Both Judaism and heathenism were full of expectations of a future teacher and deliverer: and to this person, especially among the Jews, the Spirit in all the prophets gave witness. This was the Anointed One, the Messiah, who was manifest ed in the person of Jesus of Nazareth; and him the Jews rejected, though he proved his divine mission, both by his doctrines and his miracles. But as he did not come as they fancied he would, as a mighty secular conqueror; they not only rejected him, but blasphemed him; and persons among them professing to be spiritual men, and under the influence of the Spirit of God, did so. But as the Holy Spirit, through all the law and the prophets, gave testimony to the Messiah; and as Jesus proved himself to be the Christ, both by his miracles and doctrines, no man, under the inspiration of the Divine Spirit, could say to him Anathema, thou art a deceiver,

5. Differences of administrations] Aiakovov, various offi. ces in the church, such as apostle, prophet, and teacher, under which were probably included bishop or presbyter, pastor, deacon, &c. the qualifications for such offices, as well as the appointments themselves, coming immediately from the one Lord, Jesus Christ.

6. Diversities of operations] Evepynparov. miraculous influences exted on others; such as the expulsion of demons, inflicting extraordinary punishments, as in the case of Anani as and Sapphira, Elymas the sorcerer, &c. the healing of dif ferent diseases, raising the dead, &c. all these proceeded from God the Father, as the fountain of all goodness and power, and the immediate dispenser of every good and perfect gift. In the three preceding verses we find more than an indirect GIFTS, are attributed to the Holy Spirit, ver. 4. reference to the doctrine of the Sacred Trinity. ADMINISTRATIONS, to the Lord Jesus, ver. 5. OPERATIONS, to God the Father, ver. 6. He who may think this fanciful, must account for the very evident distinctions here, in some more satisfactory way.

7. The manifestation of the Spirit] Φανέρωσις του Πνευματ ros: this is variously understood by the fathers, some of them rendering Pavepwois, by illumination, others demonstration, and others operation. The apostle's meaning seems to be this: whatever gifts God has bestowed, or in what various ways soever the Spirit of God may have manifested himself, it is all for the common benefit of the church; God has given no gift to any man for his own private advantage, or exclusive profit. He has it for the benefit of others, as well as for his own salvation.

8. Word of wisdom] In all these places, I consider that the 135

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