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88 805 3160 805 809 810 58 5 89 806 3161 806 810 811 59 6 90 807 3162 807 811 812 91 809 3163 808 812 813 809 3164 809 813 814 93 810 3165 810 814 815 94 S11 3165 S11 815 816 | 64 11 95 812 3167 812 816 817 65 12 96 813 3168 813 817 818 66 13 97 814 3169 814 818 819 67 14 815 3170 815 819 820 68 1 Galba, 9 mo. 99 816 3171 816 820 821 69 1 Otho,90 days. 100 817 3172 817 821 822 70 2 Vitellius, 8 101 818 3173 818 822 823 71 3 months. 102 819 3174 819 823 824 72 4 Vespasian, 103 820 3175 820 824 825 73 5 ten years, 104 821 3176 821 825 826 74 6 nearly. 105 822 3177 822 826 827 75 7 105 823 3178 823 827 829 76 8

114 831 3186 831 835 836 84 4
115 832 3187 832 836 837 85 5
86 6
116 833 3188 833 837 838
117 834 3189 834 838 839 87 7
118 835 3190 835 839 840 88 8
119 836 3191 836 840 841 89 9
120 837 3192 837 811 842 90 10
121 838 3193 838 842 843 91 11
92 12
122 839 3194 839 843 844
123 840 3195 840 944 845 93 13
124 841 3196 841 845 846 54 14

125 842 3197 842 846 847 95 15

126 843 3199 843 847 848 96 1 Nerva

127 844 3199 844 848 849 97 2.

128 845 3200 345 349 850 98 1 Traj. reign.19 99 2 years, 6 mo. 129 846 3201 846 850 851

130 847 3202) 847 1851 1852 100 3 and 15 days.

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2 83 Mar.22 Mar.24 14 325 ED Apr. 10 Apr. 12/25

Table of remarkable Eras,

Action era.

25 742 3097 742 746 743 3098 743 747 748 27 744 3099 744 748 749 25 745 3100 745 749 750 29 746 3101 746 750 751

4 27 The years of 37
3 28 this empe-
2/29 ror's reign

30 747 3102 747 751 7521 30 are counted
31 748 3103 748 752 753

32 749 3104 749 753 7542 32 tle of Actium, 3 33 fought 81 yrs. 33 750 3105 750 754 755 4 34 before the 34 751 3106 751 755 756 5 35 commence35 732 3107 752 756 737 6 36 ment of the 36 753 3108 753 757 758 7 37 Christian 37 754 3109 754 758 759 8 38 era. 38 755 3110 755 759 760 9 39 39 756 3111 756 760 761 40 757 3112 757 761 762 10 40 41 758 3113 758 762 763 42 759 3114 759 763 764 43 760 3115 760 764 765 44 761 3116 761 765 766 45 762 3117 762 766 767 46 763 3119 763 767 768 47 764 3119 764 768 769 48 765 3120 765 769 770 49 766 3121 766 770 771 50 767 3122 767 771 772

55 772 3127 772 773 3129 773 774 3129 774 778 779 775 3130 775 779 780 59 776 3131 776 480 781 60 777 3132 777 781 782

778 3133 778 782 783 779 3134 779 783 784 63 780 3135 780 784 785 781 3136 781 785 786 782 3137 782 786 787 66 783 3138 783 787 788 67 784 3139 784 788 789

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Chronology of

remarkable events.




B C.

5. Tiberius (afterward emperor) is invested by Augustus with the tribunitian power for five years; and soon after he retired to Rhodes.Miraculous conception of John Baptist. 5. Caius Cæsar, son of the emperor, the first who had the title of Princeps Juventutis, Prince of the Youth. He was at this time fifteen years of age.-Miraculous conception of JESUS CHRIST.-Birth of John Baptist. Jesus Christ, the son of God, born of the Virgin Mary, at Bethlehem in Julea-Wise men from the east being guided by a star, come and worship the new-born King of

the Jews.

3. Herod the Great, king of Judea, orders all the male children of Bethlehem, and its vicinity, under two years of age, to be put to death, in order to destroy Jesus Christ, who was providentially carried into Egypt before this cruel edict was put into execution. 2. Death of Herod the Great in the 37th year of his reign. He is succeeded by his son Archelaus-Death of Malthace, mother of Archelaus king of Judea.

A. D. 2. Death of Lucius, one of the sons of

A. D.

sembled by private authority some veteran soldiers. The second epoch is the third year of the Julian era, or the 711th of Rome, when after the death of the two consuls Hirtius and Pansa, he entered into the consulate with Q. Pedius, Sept. 22; or when, on the 27th of November following, he was declared triumvir with Mark Antony and Emilius Lepidus. The third epoch is the third of September, A. U. C. 723, and the 15th of the Julian era, that is to say, on the day of the battle of Actium. The fourth epoch is the following year, when, after the death of Antony and Cleopatra, he entered triumphantly into Alexandria, the 29th of August, or the first day of the Egyptian year. Thus Augustus, according to the first epoch, reigned fifty-eight years, five months, and four days. This is the epoch which Josephus appears to have followed. According to the second epoch, Augustus reigned fifty-five years, ten months, and twenty-eight days, if we reckon from the time in which he was first made consul; or fifty-five years, eight months, and twenty-two days, from his becoming one of the triumviri. It is from one of these twJ 3. Death of Caius Caesar, son of Augustus, in periods, that Suetonius, Eusebius, Epipha consequence of a wound he had received innius, and some others, compute the fifty-six Armenia-Augustus Cæsar is called Domi- years which they assign to this emperor. nus, Lord, by the people; with which title But the most common mode of computing he is displeased, and publicly forbad it by the years of the reign of Augustus is, from an edict.-About this time the celebrated the battle of Actium, from which time he Pollio died at his country house in Tuscu- lived and reigned forty-four years all but lum, aged eighty.-Augustus Caesar, who thirteen days.-Tiberius Nero Casar suc had, ten years before, been appointed to the ceeds Augustus in the empire, August 19government of the Roman empire, has the Death of Julia, daughter of Augustus, in the same conferred upon him for ten years more. sixteenth year of her exile. She was ba4. Tiberius returns from Rhodes to Rome, nished by her father, on the charge of vicious and is adopted by Augustus.--Tiberius re- and irregular conduct. ceives again the tribunitian power.-Cinna, grandson to Pompey, is charged with being the chief of a conspiracy against the emperor, and afterward pardoned.-The temple of Janus, after it had been closed ever since B. C. 8, is opened again on account of fresh disturbances in Germany.-Tiberius subdues the Caninetali, the Attuarii, the Bructeri, and the Cherusci, Germans, who had revolted from the Romans.-Augustus, that he might raise a tax in Italy, accepts of the proconsular power.


5. Tiberius extends his conquests to the Elbe, upon which the Germans sue for peace, which is granted them.

6. Revolt of the Pannonians and Dalmatians, against whom Tiberius and Germanicus are sent.-The Jews and Samaritans complain to Augustus of the tyranny of Archelaus. 7. Archelaus, king of Judea, deposed; and his dominions reduced into the form of a Roman province, and annexed to Syria. Coponius was the first governor of Judea.-About this time Judas of Galilee arose, and drew away much people after him; but he, and as many as obeyed him, were dispersed. Acts v. 37. 8. The Pannonians are again brought under subjection to the Romans.--Jesus Christ, twelve years of age, disputes with the doc tors in the temple, who are astonished at his understanding and answers.

9. OVID banished by Augustus to Tomos in Pontus.-Baton, the Dalmatian general, surrenders the town of Anduba to Germanicus, which puts an end to the Dalmatian war.Memorable defeat of the Romans under P. Quintilius Varus, governor of Germany, by Arminius, chief of the revolted Germans. 10. Tiberius marches against the Germans; and in the course of this and the following year, reduced the Germans again under the Roman yoke; upon which a profound peace takes place in the whole Roman world. 11. Tiberius, in consequence of his very important services, is made by Augustus his colleague in the empire, both in the civil and military government, August 28. 12. Imperial edict against diviners and astrologers.

13. Augustus Cæsar is again appointed emperor for ten years longer, the last prorogation expiring the end of this year.

14. Death of Augustus Caesar (in the consulship of Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius) at Nola, August 19, being 76 years of age, all but 35 days.-There are four epochs from which historians date the years of this emperor's reign. The first is that of the second year of the Julian era, or the 709th of Rome; when, after the death of Julius Cæsar, coming from Macedonia into Italy, he took upon him the rank of emperor, without making any change in the republic, and as

15. Extraordinary overflowing of the Tiber, by which several houses are destroyed, and lives lost.-Achaia and Macedonia become provinces to Cæsar, having been governed before by proconsuls.-War in Germany. Arminius makes the Cherusci take up arms against Germanicus. Drawn battle between the Romans and Germans.

16. Battle of Idistavisus gained by the Romans over the Germans under Arminius.-Second battle gained by Germanicus over Arminius, in the neighbourhood of the Elbe.-The Angrivarians submit to the Romans.-Expedition of Germanicus against the Cartans and Marsians, who immediately submit.-Conspiracy of Drusus Libo against Tiberius discovered; upon which the conspirator kills himself.

17. Triumph of Germanicus over the Cheruscans, the Cattans, the Angrivarians, and other nations, between the Rhine and the Elbe, May 26.-Terrible earthquake in Asia, which overthrew twelve celebrated cities; among these was Sardis, which suffered the most.-Death of Titus Livy, the historian, at Padua; and of Ovid, in his exile in Scythia.

18. About this time Rhascupolis, called also Rhascoporis, and Rhescuporis, king of Thrace, is deprived of his kingdom, and banished.-About this time a new island made its appearance in the Archipelago, Pliny, ii.87. -Expedition of Germanicus into the East. Zeno, the son of Polemon, ascends the throne of Armenia, through the favour of Germanicus.-The kingdoms of Cappadocia and Commagena reduced into the form of Roman provinces. Q. Veranius is made governor of the former, and Q. Servæus of the latter. 19. Death of Germanicus. He is buried at Antioch.-Rhascupolis put to death at Alexandria-Death of Arminius, general of the Germans, in the 37th year of his age.-Maroboduus, king of the Lombards, dethroned. 20. Death of Sallust, the emperor's minister. He was grandson of a sister of Sallust the historian.

21. Revolt in Gaul.-Sacrovir, chief of the Eduans, defeated by Silius, which puts an end to the Gallic war.-First African war under Tacfarinas, which commenced A.U. C. 770, finished this year to the advantage of the Romans. Tacfarinas is driven into the deserts by Blesus the governor. 22. Maluginensis removed from the government of Asia, on account of his being priest of Jupiter.-Pompey's theatre destroyed by fire about this time, and rebuilt by Tiberius. -Death of Junia, niece of Cato, sister of Brutus, and wife of Cassius. She had survived the battle of Philippi sixty-three years. -Death of Lucilius Longus, the emperor's most particular friend.

1A. D.

23. The Pantomimes expelled Italy. 24. The second war of Tacfarinas ended by Dollabella, in which Tacfarinas is slain. 26. Thrace, agitated by commotions, is reduced to submission by Poppeus Sabinus.The emperor's final departure from Rome.John Baptist began to baptize in Judea, about this time.-Pontius Pilate made governor of Judea, which office he held for ten yearsIn the fifteenth year of the principality of Tiberius Cesar, which was the teelfth of his monarchy, Jesus Christ, thirty years of age, is baptized by John in Jordan, and enters upon his public ministry. 27. Fifty thousand men are said to have been killed by the fall of an amphitheatre at F dena-Great fire in Rome, which consumed all the quarter of mount Celius. 28. John Baptist beheaded about this time, by order of Herod Antipas.

29. Revolt of the Frisians, which is soon ter minated.-The Jews, by the permission of Pontius Pilate, crucity Jesus Christ, who on the third day after his crucifixion, rises from the dead; and forty days after his resurrec tion ascends up into heaven-Miserable death of Judas the traitor.-Peter's sermon on the day of pentecost, by means of which three thousand persons are converted to Christianity.

30. Ananias and his wife Sapphira suddenly struck dead for their hypocrisy. 31. Death of Nero, eldest son of Germanicus -Stephen stoned to death by the Jews-A great persecution of the followers of Christ at Jerusalem takes place after the martyr. dom of Stephen.

32. An angel sends Philip to baptize the Ethiopian eunuch.

33. Galba, afterward emperor, is consul this year.-Death of Drusus, son of Germanicus. -Conversion of Saul of Tarsus, afterward called Paul.-The number of the followers of Christ greatly increase. 34. At Lydda, Peter cures Eneas of the palsy: and at Joppa restores Tabitha to life. 35. Troubles and revolutions among the Parthians and Armenians. 36. Commotions in Cappadocia, which are soon quelled by the Romans.-Fire at Rome, which destroye part of the circus, and the quarter of mount Aventine-Tiberius declares himself friendly to the Christians, and wishes to enrol Christ among the gods; but is opposed by the senate. 37. Death of Tiberius Nero Casar, on the 16th or 26th of March, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, after having reigned 22 years, six months, and twenty-six days, if we reckon from the death of Augustus; and twenty-five years, six months, and 15 days, from the time when he was first associated in the em pire with Augustus. He is succeeded by Caius Caligula.-Antiochus again put in possession of the kingdom of Commagena, which had been reduced into a Roman province by Germanicus-Disgrace and death of Pilate, governor of Judea. 38. Vespasian, afterward emperor, was edile in this year, i. e. a magistrate, who had the care of the public buildings of the city. 39. Getulicus and Lepidus put to death upon suspicion of a conspiracyagainst the emperor 40. The conversion of Cornelius the centurion happened about this time. 41. The emperor Caligula slain on the fourth day of the Palatine games. He is succeeded by his uncle Claudius Cæsar.-Seneca ba nished to the island of Corsica-War of the Romans against the Germans and MoorsMauritania reduced into a Roman province. 42. The followers of Jesus first called Chris tians at Antioch.

43. Claudius vanquishes the Britons in seve ral battles; and at his return to Rome is ho noured with a triumph.-Dearth in Rome occasioned by Messalina and the freedmen monopolizing and raising the price of the necessaries of life.


Vespasian fought thirty battles with the Britons, took twenty of their towns, subdued two of the British nations, and possesseu himself of the Isle of Wight.-James, the brother of John, put to death by Herod 45. An eclipse of the sun on the birth-day of the emperor Claudius. To prevent the su perstitious drawing thence any inauspicious omens concerning him, he caused notice so be posted up some time before it happened, giving a physical explanation of the pheno menon. The dreadful famine foretold b Agabus, rages in Judea, Acts xi. 27, 2

Chronology of

A D.

46. Asinius Gallus, half brother to Drusus, son of Tiberius, coaspires against the empe ror, and is truished-Thrace, which had hitherto its own kings, is inade a Roman province-About this time a new island makes its appearance in the Egean sea. It ts named Theraria by Seneca.

47. The emperor takes upon himself the title
of Censor-Seruar games celebrated at
Rome, in hoao. of the 800th year of Rome.
-Clauitrus adds three new letters to the
Roman alphabet, the names of two of which
only remain; the Eolic digamma, which
answers to our v: and the Antisigma,
which answers to a p and an 8 joined toge
ther.-Many of the greatest men in Rome
are put to death by Claudius, to gratify the
revenge and covetousness of Messalina, his
wife.-Commotions in the east, and in Ger-
many-Incursions of the Cauci into lower
Germany. Corbulo reduces them to subjec-
tion-Celebrated canal cut between the
Rhine and the Macse.

48. Claudius, by a census, is said to find
6,900,000 citizens in Rome.-The Gauls ad-
mitted into the senate, and to the dignities
of the empire.-L. Salvius Otho, the empe-
ror Otho's father, made patrician.
49 Hero1 Agrippa, king of the Jews, eaten up
of worms; Acts xli. 23-Seneca recalled from
banishment, and made preceptor to Agrip
pa's son.

50 Cologne founded by Agrippina.-The Catti
defeated by Pomponius.
51. Great dearth in the Ronan empire.-The
Britons making incursions into the Roman
settlements, are vanquished by P. Ostorius

58. The Jeres expelled Rome by Claudius.-Ca
rectacus, the British king, is defeated, made
prisoner, and carried to Rome.-The aque-
duct at Rome, begun by Caligula fourteen
years before, finished this year by Claudius.
53. Nero's marriage with Octavia.-Claudius
Felix made governor of Judea in the room
of Ventidius Cumanus.

54. Calus Tiberius Claudius Nero Cæsar, the
Roman emperor, poisoned by the empress
Agrippina, after a reign of thirteen years,
eight months, and twenty-one days; and is
succeeded in the empire by Nero Cæsar, his
wife's son-Paul preaches at Athens.--Death
of Azisus, king of the Emesenians.
55. Britannicus, son of Claudius Caesar by
Messalina, poisoned by the emperor his bro-
ther-War of the Romans against the Par-

57. Apollos, an eloquent man, and mighty in
the Scriptures, preaches at Corinth, Acts

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3. Artaxata, the capital of Armenia, burnt oy Corbulo,-Tigranocerta taken by Corbulo. -Armenia totally subdued by Corbulo, and given by Nero to Tigranes, great grandson of Archelaus, formerly king of Cappadocia. 5. Nero puts his mother Agrippina to death. -Death of Domitius Afer, the orator.-Laodicea, one of the most famous cities in Asia, destroyed by an earthquake.

The pantomimes recalled by Nero.-Ap pearance of a comet, at which the vulgar are greatly alarmed.-The city of Puteoli, or Pozzuola, obtains from Nero the title of August or imperial Colony.


A. D.
-Great fire in Rome, by which upward of
two thirds of this great city was consumed.

Nero, charging the late conflagration of the
city upon the Christians, persecutes them
with all manner of cruelties and torments.-
The Jews revolt from the Romans, and pelt
their governor Florus with stones, which
begins the first Jewish war.
65. Several great men conspire against the
emperor; but the plot is discovered.-Death
of Seneca and Lucan.-Campania wasted by
an epidemical sickness, and great tempests.
-Great fire at Lyons, which nearly con-
sumed the whole city. Nero made the inha-
bitants of this city a present of four millions
of sesterces, (about thirty-two thousand
pounds,) toward repairing their losses,
66. Tiridates receives the crown of Armenia
from the hands of Nero-Vespasian sent by
Nero to make war against the Jews.-Disturb
ances in Cæsarea between the Jews and the
idolaters who inhabited that city.--Sedition in
Jerusalem, occasioned by Florus. This may
be considered the proper commencement of
the Jewish war. It took place, according to
Josephus, on the sixteenth day of the month
Artemisius, which according to Scaliger's
calculation, corresponds to our May-The
Jews of Cæsarea slain to the number of twen-
ty thousand-All Syria filled with slaughter
by the battles between the Jews and the Sy
ríans-Cypros and Macherontum taken by
the Jews from the Romans.-Jerusalem be-
sieged by Castius Gallus.-The Christians
leave Jerusalem, and fly to Pella, in Cælo-

67. Vespasian Invades Judea with an army of
60,000 men, and carries fire and sword where-
ever he goes: immense numbers of the Jews
are slain in the various sieges.-St. Peter and
St Paul put to death about this time.-Jota-
pata taken by the Romans after a siege of
forty-six days.-Japha taken by the Romans.
-Eleven thousand six hundred Samaritans,
that had assembled on the top of mount Ge
rizim, slain by order of Vespasian.-Joppa
taken and destroyed by the Romans.-Tari-
chæa taken by the Romans, and nearly 40,000
persons, who had taken refuge in it, slain.
-Death of Corbulo.

remarkable events

A. D.
tablished in the world, the temple of Janus
is shut. This is the sixth time of its being
shut, according to Orosius.

72 Commagena is made a Roman province.
--Vologeses, king of Parthia, molested by the
Alans, a Scythian people, who overrun Me-
dia and Armenia.

73. Rhodes, Samos, and the neighbouring is-
lands, formed into a province, under the
name of the Cyclades, or island province.
74. Vespasian, who had made his son Titus his
colleague in the censorship, celebrates with
him the ceremony of closing the Lustrum ·
and of numbering the Ronian citizens.
75. Dedication of the temple of Peace. Ves-
pasian places in it the golden vessels be-
longing to the temple of Jerusalem, and a
great number of the finest performances of
the best painters and sculptors.-Nero's co-
lossus, erected by his order at the entrance
of the golden palace, is dedicated to Apollo,
or the sun, by Vespasian.
76. Three cities in the island of Cyprus, de-
stroyed by an earthquake.
77. Dreadful plague in Rome, through which
ten thousand persons are said to have died
in one day!

78. Agricola appointed governor of Britain.
79. Vespasian dies, after a reign of nine years,
eleven months, and twenty-four days, and
is succeeded in the Roman empire by his
son Titus.-Dreadful eruption of mount
Vesuvius, which devastated a considerable
part of Campania.--Death of the elder Pliny,
who was suffocated by the smoke and ashes
from the mountain, while employed in ex-
amining this dreadful phenomenon.
80. Dreadful pestilence.--Terrible fire at Rome,
which raged with great violence for three
days and three nights. Many of the public
buildings were destroyed,among which were
the pantheon, the Octavian library, and the
capitol, which had not been long rebuilt. —
Dedication of the amphitheatre begun by
Vespasian, and finished by Titus.
81. Titus dies on Sept. 13, after a reign of
two years, two months, and twenty days,
and is succeeded in the Roman empire by
his brother Domitian.

83. Domitian's expedition against the Catti, a
people of Germany. The emperor returns
without having seen the enemy, and causes
triumphal honours to be decreed him. It is
supposed that about this time he received
the surname of Germanicus.
84 Sabinus is made colleague with Domitian
in the consulate his prænomen is not
known; but he is supposed to be the same
with Oppius Sabinus, who lost his life soon
after in the Dacian war.-The Caledonians
defeated by Agricola, with the loss of 10,000
men. The ornaments of triumph are de-
creed the victor.-The fleet of Agricola sailed
round Great Britain: before this circum-
navigation was made, the Romans were not
sure that Britain was an island.
85. Domitian orders the nativity of all the
great men in Rome to be cast; and such as
were said to be born for empire he destroyed.

Philosophers banished from Rome by Domitian.-The Nasamonians revolt from the Romans, but are subdued by Flaccus.-Fulvius is made colleague with the emperor this year in the consulate his prænomen is not known. This Fulvius is supposed to be elther T. Aurelius Fulvius, or Fulvius, the grandfather of the emperor TitusAntonínus. 86. Institution of Capitoline games.-The Da clan war began this year, according to Eusebius-The Dacians enter the Roman pro vinces, and make great depredations: but are at last completely overthrown by Juli

68. Dreadful calamities in Jerusalem, occasioned by the zealots, who divide themselves into two different parties, and murder one another by thousands, committing the most horrid crueltles.-The emperor Nero, on account of his great crueltyand injustice, is obliged to fly from Rome to the house of Phaon, one of his freedmen, about four miles from Rome, where he kills himself: upon which the senate declares Galba emperor. 69. On the kalends of January, the images of Galba, in Germany, are thrown down: and on the third day Vitellius is saluted emperor by the army; and on the fifteenth day of the same month, Galba is slain by the partisans of Otho, seven months after the death of Nero: upon which Otho is proclaimed emperor.-Civil war between Vitellius and Otho-Engagement in an island in the Po, between the troops of Otho and Vitellius, wherein the latter have the advantage.— Battle of Bedriachum, in which Otho's army is defeated; upon which Otho kills himself, after a reign of three months. He is suc61. The Britons form a league to recover their ceeded by Vitellius.-Dolabella put to death independence. They take advantage of the by order of Vitellius-Civil war between absence of Suetonius Paulinus, their gover- Vitellius and Vespasian.--Cremona sacked by nor, to take up arms against the Romans.- Primes-Junius Blæsus poisoned by order Boadicea, the British queen, defeats the Ro of Vitellius.-Vespasian acknowledged emmans, killing 70,000 in various places; but peror by a great part of Italy, and all the he Britons are at last defeated by Suetonius, western provinces.-The capítol besieged the Roman general, with the loss of 80,000.- and taken by Vitellius' soldiers.-The temPedanius Secundus, præfect of Rome, assas ple of Jupiter Capitolinus destroyed by fire. sinated by one of his slaves.-King Agrippa-Vitellius is killed, after a reign of eight confers the high priesthood on Israel, the months and a few days, and Vespasian sucson of Phabius. ceeds him in the empire.-The Batavians, under Civilis, revolt from the Romans, over whom they obtain two great victories. 70, Vespasian orders the capitol to be rebuilt, the first stone of which was laid on the 21st of June.-Titus, son of Vespasian, sent by 90. The Marcomans, &c. having defeated the the emperor to besiege Jerusalem.-The emperor, the latter makes peace with Dece. Jewish temple burnt, notwithstanding the balus, king of the Dacians, and allows him a endeavours of Titus to preserve it.-Jerusa yearly pension, which is never demanded. lem taken Sept. 7, and destroyed by Titus, He assumes the surname of Dacicus. which ends the Jewish war. Josephus rec-91. Domitian changes the names of the months kons that not less than eleven hundred thou of September and October, and calls them sand persons perished in this siege, by fire, Germanicus and Domitianus; which consword, misery, and famine. If to this num- tinued only during his life.-About this time ber be added all that were killed in the se- the temple of Janus is again shut.-Cornelia, veral battles fought out of Jerusalem, and in chief of the vestals, accused by the emperor the taking of the several towns which the o. incontinence, is buried alive. Romans stormed, it will be found that the 92 About this time happened the revolt of Jews lost in the whole course of the war, L. Antonius, who commanded on the Upper one million three hundred and fifty-seven Rhine. He is defeated and killed.-The kingthousand six hundred and sixty men. The dom of Chalcis, unitel to the Roman empire. number of prisoners during the war, ac- 93. Death of Agricola, the governor of Britain, cording to the same historian, amounted to on the 23rd of August, in the year when ninety-seven thousand! See on Matt. xxiv.31. Collega and Priscus were consuls-The Sar 71 Magnificent triumph of Vespasian for his matians revolt, but are soon quelled by Dovictories over the Jews.-Peace being re-es-mftian; in consequence of which he carries

#2 Death of Mark the evangelist. He is said
to have been buried at Alexandria-St. Paul
sent in bonds to Rome. He is shipwrecked
at Malta-Nero puts his empress Octavia to
death-Aulus Persius Flaccus, the poet,
dies, in the thirtieth year of his age.
62. On the fifth of February, a violent earth-
quake happened in Campania, which de-
stroyed great part of the city of Pompeii, at
the foot of mount Vesuvius, and did con-
siderable damage to Herculaneum.-About
this time Nero reduced the Cottian Alps into
a Roman province, after the death of King
Cottius-The Parthians vanquished by the
Romans under Corbulo. Tiridates, king of
Parthia, lays down his crown at the foot of
Nero's statue.-James, the brother of our
Lord, is, according to Eusebius, thrown
down from a pinnacle of the temple and
stoned and a fuller striking him on the
head with a club, kills him.
64. The emperor sends two centurions up the
Nile, in order to explore its source; but the
Centurions falled in their expedition, being
stopped by the cataracts and marshy grounds.


88. The secular games celebrated at Rome this year, not because it was the termination of an even century, from the building of the city; but through the mere caprice of the emperor.

89. Domitian banished the astrologers from Rome.

Chronology f

A. D.

a laurel crown to the capitol, and consecrates it to Jupiter.

94. Philosophers and scientific men banished Rome by an order of the senate. Epictetus, the famous stoic philosopher, was among the nuinber of the exiles.


JA. D.
Acilius Glabrio,who had been consul A.U.C.]
844, is put to death by order of the emperor.
96. Douitian killed in his palace by some of
his freedmen, after a tyrannical reign of if
teen years and five days. He was the last
of the twelve Cesars, and is succeeded in
the empire by Nerva.
97. Death of Virginius, the consul, in the
eighty-third year of his age. Tacitus, who
was at this time consul by subrogation, pro-
nounces his funeral oration.-Trajan, who
commanded the army in Lower Germany,
adopted by Nerva.

95. Commencement of the second persecution
against the Christians.-About this time St.
John was thrown into a cauldron of boiling
oil, near the Latin gate at Rome; but being
miraculously preserved, is afterward ba-
nished to Patmos, where he is supposed to
have written his Revelation some time in
the course of this or the following year.-198. Nerva dies, January 21, after having!

remarkable events

A. D.
reigned one year, four months, and eight
days, and is succeeded in the empare by
Trajan, a Spaniard.-The Chamavians and
Angrivarians defeat the Bructerians, with
the loss of 60,000 men.
99 Trajan, who was in Germany when he
was proclaimed emperor, enters Rome with
out the least parade.
100. Adrian, afterward emperor, married to
Sabina, daughter of Trajan's nephew -The
death of St. John the apostle and evangelist,
is generally supposed to have happened
about this time.




THAT ST. PAUL was the author of this epistle, and that it possesses every evidence of authenticity that any work of the kind can possess; or that even the most fastidious scepticism can require; have been most amply proved by Dr. W. Paley, archdeacon of Carlisle, in his work entitled "Hora Paulina; or, the Truth of the Scripture History of St. Paul evinced, by & comparison of the epistles which bear his name, with the Acts of the Apostles, and with one another."

Of this apostle I have spoken at large in the notes on the preceding book; and especially in the observations at the close of the ninth chapter; to which I beg leave to refer the reader. It will be sufficient to state here, that Saul, (afterward called Paul,) was born in Tarsus, a city of Cilicia, of Jewish parents, who possessed the right of Roman citizens: (see the note on Acts xxii. 28.) that when young he was sent to Jerusalem for the purpose of receiving a Jewish education: that he was there put under the tuition of the famous Rabbi Gamaliel, and was incorporated with the sect of the Pharisees, of whose system he imbibed all the pride, self-confidence, and intolerance, and distinguished himself as one of the most invete. rate enemies of the Christian cause; but being converted by a most singular interposition of Divine Providence and grace, he became one of the most zealous promoters and successful defenders of the cause which he had before so inveterately persecuted.

Though this epistle is directed to the Romans, yet we are not to suppose that Romans, in the proper sense of the word, are meant; but rather those who dwelt at Rome, and composed the Christian church in that city that there were among these, Romans, properly such, that is, heathens who had been converted to the Christian faith, there can be no doubt: but that the principal part of the church in that city, seems to have been formed from Jews, sojourners at Rome; and from such as were proselytes to the Jewish religion.

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That what the law in truth could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God had done by sending his Son;-6th. That God had rejected the unbelieving Jews, and had substi tuted in their place, a society of believers in Christ; collected indifferently from Jews and Gentiles -Therefore, in an epis tle directed to Roman believers, the point to be endeavoured after by St. Paul, was to reconcile the Jewish converts to the opinion that the Gentiles were admitted by God to a parity of religious situation with themselves; and that, without their being obliged to keep the law of Moses. In this epistle, though directed to the Roman church in general, it is in truth, a Jew writing to Jews. Accordingly, as often as his argument leads him to say any thing derogatory from the Jewish institution, he constantly follows it by a softening clause. Having, chap. ii. 23, 29. pronounced "that he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh," he adds immediately, "What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there in circumcision? Much every way." Having, in the third chap. ver. 28. brought his argument to this formal conclusion, "that a man is justified by faith, with out the deeds of the law," he presently subjoins, ver. 31. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid! Yea, we establish the law." In the seventh chap. when in ver. 6. he had advanced the bold assertion, "that now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held;" in the next verse he comes in with this healing question, "What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid! Nay, I had not known sin but by the law." Having in the following words more than insinuated the inefficacy of the Jewish law, chap. viii. 3. "for what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh;" after a digression indeed, but that sort of a digression, which he could never resist, a rapturous contemplation of his Christian hope, and which occupies the latter part of this chapter; we find him in the text, as if sensible that he had said something which would give offence, return ing to his Jewish brethren in terms of the warmest affection and respect; "I say the truth in Christ Jesus, I lie not: my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost, that I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart; for I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my bre

When, or by whom the Gospel was first preached at Rome, cannot be ascertained. Those who assert that St. Peter was its founder, can produce no solid reason for the support of their opinion. Had this apostle first preached the Gospel in that city, it is not likely that such an event would have been unnoticed in the Acts of the Apostles; where the labours of St. Peter are particularly detailed with those of St. Paul, which indeed form the chief subject of that book. Nor is it likely that the author of this epistle should have made no re-thren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites, ference to this circumstance, had it been true. Those who say that this church was founded by these two apostles conjointly, have still less reason on their side; for it is evident from chap. i. 8, &c. that St. Paul had never been at Rome, previously to his writing this epistle. It is most likely that no apostle was employed in this important work; and that the Gospel was first preached there by some of those persons who were converted at Jerusalem on the day of pentecost; for, we find from Acts ii. 10. that there were then at Jerusalem, strangers of Rome, Jews, and proselytes; and these, on their return, would naturally declare the wonders they had witnessed; and proclaim that truth by which they themselves had received salvation. Of ROME itself, then the metropolis of the world, a particular account has been given in the note on Acts, chap. xviii. 16. to which the reader is requested to


The occasion of writing this epistle, may be easily collected from the epistle itself. It appears that St. Paul had been made acquainted with all the circumstances of the Christians at Rome, by means of Aquila and Priscilla, (see chap. xvi. 3.) and by other Jews who had been expelled from Rome, by the decree of Claudius, (mentioned Acts xviii. 2.) and finding that it was composed partly of heathens, converted to Christianity; and partly of Jews, who had, with many remaining preju dices, believed in Jesus as the true Messiah; and that many contentions arose from the claims of the Gentile converts to equal privileges with the Jews; and, from the absolute refusal of the Jews to admit these claims, unless the Gentile converts became circumcised, he wrote this epistle to adjust and settle these differences.

Dr. Paley, with his usual perspicuity, has shown that the principal object of the argumentative part of the epistle, is, To place the Gentile convert upon a parity of situation with the Jewish, in respect of his religious condition and his rank in the Divine favour." The epistle supports this point by a variety of arguments; such as,-1st. That no man, of either description, was justified by the works of the law-for this plain reason, that no man had performed them;-2d. That it became therefore necessary to appoint another medium, or condition of justification, in which new medium the Jewish peculiarity was merged and lost;-3d. That Abraham's own Justification was antecedent to the law, and independent of ;-4th. That the Jewish converts were to consider the law as now dead, and themselves as married to another -5th.

to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the cove nants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers; and of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came." When in the 31st and 32d verses of the ninth chapter, he represented to the Jews the error of even the best of their nation, by telling them that "Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, had not attained to the law of righteousness, because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law, for they stumbled at that stumbling-stone;" he takes care to annex to this declaration, these conciliating expressions; "Brethren, my heart's desire, and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved; for I bear them record, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge." Lastly, having, chap. x. 20, 21. by the application of a passage in Isaiah, insinuating the most ungrateful of all propositions to a Jewish ear, the rejection of the Jewish nation as God's peculiar people; he hastens, as it were, to qualify the intelligence of their fall by this interesting exposition: "I say then, hath God cast away his people, (i. e. wholly and entirely?) God forbic! for I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin, God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew," and follows this thought throughout the whole of the eleventh chapter, in a series of reflections calculated to sooth the Jewish converts, as well as to procure from their Gentile brethren, respect to the Jewish institution. Dr. Paley, drawing an argument from this manner of writing in behalf of the genuineness of this epistle, adds, "Now, all this is perfectly natural. In a real St. Paul, writing to real converts, it is, what anxiety to bring them over to his persuasion would naturally produce; but there is an earnestness and a personality, if I inay so call it, in the manner, which a co forgery, I apprehend, would neither have conceived nor supported." Hora Pauline, p. 49, &c.

From a proper consideration of the design of the apostle in writing this epistle, and from the nature and circumstances of the persons to whom it was directed; much light may be derived for a proper understanding of the epistle itself. When the reader considers that the church at Rome was composed of heathens and Jews: that the latter were taught to consider themselves the only people on earth, to whom the Divine fa your extended: that these alone had a right to all the blessings of the Messiah's kingdom: that the giving then the law and the prophets, which had not been given to any other people.

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