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and the gracious design of freeing the nurch from the embarrassments of the law of Moses, would have been defeated. The Gospel, or glad tidings of salvation, must not only have been confined to the narrow limits of the Jewish peculiarity, and clogged with all the ceremonial observances belonging to it, which, to the greatest part of mankind, would have been either impracticable, or excessively incommodious; but, which is still worse, must have sunk and fallen with that peculiarity. Had the Gospel been built upon the foundation of the Jewish polity, it must have been destroyed, when that was demolished; and the whole kingdom of God in the world, would have been overthrown and extinct at the same time; and so all the noble principles it was intended to inspire, to animate, and comfort our hearts, would have been lost; and all the light it was calculated to diffuse, throughout the world, would have been quite extinguished.

It was, therefore, the apostle's duty to vindicate and assert the truth of the Gospel, which he was commissioned to preach to the Gentiles: and of very great consequence to prove, that we Gentiles are the children of God, interested in his cove. nant; and all the honours, blessings, and privileges of his family and kingdom here upon earth; only by faith in Christ, without coming under any obligations to the law of Moses as such. Which is the main drift and subject of this epistle.

12. It is worth notice, that there is this difference, in one respect, between the Gospels and Epistles; namely, That our Lord, in the Gospels, represents the doctrines and principles of the Christian religion, chiefly in an absolute sense; or as they are in themselves. But in the Epistles, those doctrines and principles are chiefly considered in a relative view; as they respect, partly, the foregoing Jewish dispensation, and partly, the future corruption of the Christian church: but principally as they respect the different state of Jews and Heathens; showing how just, true, and necessary, they are with reference to both, and directing and exhorting both to value them, and to make a right use of them. This was absolutely necessary to a full explication of the Gospel, to guard it against all objections, and to give it a solid establishment in the world.

And we must not forget that in the Epistle to the Romans the Gospel is presented in this relative view, as adapted to the circumstances of us Gentiles, and obliging us to all virtue and piety.

the calling of the Gentiles.

Where this grand view of this epistle is not taken, the major part of its beauties are lost. God, who is not the God of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles, shows by his apostle in this admirable epistle, that from the beginning he had purposed to call the whole Gentile world to that salvation which he appeared for a time to restrain to the Jews alone: and which they imagined should be exclusively theirs for ever. This prejudice the apostle overturns and shows that the Gentiles also had an equal share in the election of grace.— We should be careful how we make that partial and exclu sive which shows the Fountain of goodness to be no respecter of persons, or even, ultimately, of nations: who, like the sun, the faint, though brightest image of his glory in this lower world, shines equally upon the just and the unjust. God, with the same benevolent design, orders his Gospel to be preached to every creature under heaven.

The peculiar phraseology of this epistle I have also endeayoured to explain; and where this could not be conveniently done in the notes, I have generally stated it at the end of the chapters. And for the explanations of difficult points, or articles which may have been but slightly handled in the notes, I beg to refer to those concluding observations; and particu larly to those at the end of chap. viii. and ix.- But it is necessary to make some remarks on this epistle, as an epistle directed to the Romans; that is, to the church of God founded at Rome. Though the Gospel was preached and established there long before either the apostle had visited this city, or written this epistle; yet we may rest assured that the doctrine contained here was the doctrine of the church of Rome, and therefore that church was holy and apostolic. If it do not continue to walk by the same rule, and mind the same thing, it is no longer so; in a time then, when the Roman church that now is, invites the attention of the Christian world by making great and bold pretensions; assuming to it. self the titles of holy, catholic, and apostolic; representing Rome as the fountain whence pure truth and apostolical authority emanate; it may be useful to examine whether such pre. tensions are well founded; and not permit confident assumption, noise, and parade, to carry away our understandings; and occupy the place of reason, argument, and truth. This, however, cannot be done to any extent in this place; only it may be necessary to state, that as the doctrines, &c. of the Roman church, profess to be apostolic, they must be found in the Epistle to the ROMANS, this being the only apostolic 13. Farther, we can neither duly value this epistle, nor be work directed to that church. If they are not to be met with sensible how much we are indebted to the author of it, unless we here, it would be absurd to look for thein any where else. make this sentiment familiar to our thoughts: namely, That St. But there is not one distinguishing doctrine, or practice of Paul is the patron and defender of all that is by far the most the Romish church, found in this epistle. Here is no pope, valuable and important to us in the world, against the only no exclusive churchship, no Peterpence, first-fruits, legatine opposition that could be made to our title and claim. Give levies, dispensations, pardons, indulgences, reliques, Agnus me leave to explain this by an easy comparison.-A person, Dei's, jubilees, pilgrimages, crusades, carnivals, canonizato me unknown, leaves me at his death 1000l. a year; I my- tions, abbies, monasteries, cells, shrines, privileged altars, self can have no objection against the noble donative; and auricular confessions, purgatories, masses, prayers for the the good pleasure of the donor, who had an undoubted right dead, requiems, placebos, dirges, lamps, processions, holy to dispose of his own, may silence any of the cavillers' sur- water, chrisms, baptism of bells, justification by works, pe. mises. But a person claiming, as heir at law, gives me the nances, transubstantiation, works of supererogation, extreme greatest uneasiness. He alleges, the estate was entailed, and unction, invocation of saints and angels, worship of images, that he has a prior title, which renders the donation to me in-crossings of the body, rosaries, albs, stoles, &c. nor the endvalid. Here I want an able advocate, to prove that his pre- less orders of priests, abbots, monks, friars, nuns, anchorets, tentions are ill grounded, and that my title is perfectly good hermits, capuchins, &c. &c. Here are no inquisitions, no and firm. St. Paul is that advocate: he argues and strongly writs de hæretico comburendo, no auto da fès, no racks, gibproves, that we, believing Gentiles, have a just and solid title bets, tortures, nor death in all variable and horrid forms, for to all the blessings of God's covenant; and effectually esta- those who may differ from this mother church, in any part of blishes us in possession of all the noble principles, motives, their religious creed. In vain will the reader look into this comfort, hope, and joy of the Gospel. The sum of what he epistle for any thing that is not consistent with sound sense, demonstrates, is comprehended in i Pet. ii. 8, 9, 10. They, inflexible reason, and the justice, purity, and endless benevo the Jews, stumble, and lose their ancient honours and privi-lence of the Great God, the equal Father of the spirits of all leges; but ye Gentiles, are a chosen generation, a roya! flesh. Here, indeed, he will see the total fall and degeneracy priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should of all mankind, strongly asserted and proved; the utter helpshow forth the praises of him who has called you out of hea-lessness of the human race, to rescue itself from this state of thenish darkness, into his marvellous light. Thus, on the au- corruption; the endless mercy of God, in sending Christ Jethority of God, we Gentiles have an indisputable right to all sus into the world to die for sinners; the doctrine of justificathe blessings of the Gospel; and if we receive by Christ Je- tion by faith in the blood of the Lamb; regeneration by the sus, that grace which pardons and cleanses the soul, we shall energy of the Divine Spirit, producing that holiness, without pass from the church militant into the church triumphant. which no man can see God. Here, the sacrificial death of JeAt the conclusion of my notes on this very important epistle, sus Christ takes place of all Jewish sacrifices, and works or I feel it necessary to make a few additional remarks. I have sufferings of man, in reference to justification. Here is nosincerely and conscientiously given that view of the apostle's thing puerile, nugatory, or superstitious; no dogma degra work which I believe to be true and correct. I am well aware ding to the understanding; no religious act unworthy of the that many great and good men have understood this portion spirit and dignity of the Gospel; nothing that has not the most of Divine revelation differently, in many respects, from my immediate tendency to enlighten the mind, and mend the self: they have the same right of private judgment which heart of man: in a word, every thing is suitable to the state claim; and to publish those opinions which they judge to ac. of man, and worthy of the majesty, justice, and benevolence cord best with their views of the Gospel. My business is to of that God, from whom this epistle came. Here, indeed, is give what I think to be the mind of my author; and every the model of a pure church. What a pity it is not more closely where I have laboured to do this without even consulting any followed by all, whether Protestant or Popish, that profess pre-established creed. I hope my readers will take in good the faith of Christ crucified! Alas! that a church which was what is honestly imended. I wish to avoid controversy: once pure and apostolic, and still retains all the essential doc. I give my own views of Divine truth. The plan on which i trines of the Gospel, should compound them with others, have endeavoured to expound this epistle shows it a beautiful, which are not only the commandments and inventions of men, highly important, and consistent whole: a work which casts but which so counteract the influence of the truths still rethe clearest light on the grand original designs of God, rela- tained, as to destroy their efficacy; and no wonder, when tive to the diffusion of the Gospel, and its blessings over the this foreign admixture is an assemblage of rites and ceremo face of the earth: illustrating many apparently dark and un-nies, borrowed partly from the Jews, and partly from the anaccountable providences; fully proving that, though clouds cient heathens; rendered palatable by a small proportion of and darkness are often round the Supreme Being, yet right- Christianity. eousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne.

I

The reader will observe, that in the attempt to illustrate

1

Ancient Roman calendar.

ROMANS.

this difficult and most important epistle, I have levied contributions in all quarters.-Jews, Christians, Heathens, Fathers, schoolmen, orthodox and heterodox, have all contributed their quota. I sought the light of truth, and was regardless whose hand held the lamp.

Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. En. 1. v. 574. To divines and critics, both on the continent, and in our own country, I am under great obligation; and this obligation I have felt gratified in acknowledging, whenever an opportunity presented itself:-but to no man am I under so much obligation as to the late Dr. John Taylor of Norwich. No man, previous to his time, ever studied this epistle so closely, or understood it so well. He alone was the first who set all its parts in a consistent, edifying, and glorious light, as far as its grand nature and design are concerned. On his plan alone,

Festivals of the Romish church.

this epistle can be interpreted; those who have had the rash-
ness to say, (because his religious creed and theirs happened
to differ,) "Dr. T. knew nothing of this epistle; and his key,
far from opening, has locked it;" are worthy of no regard:
they are either too weak, or too prejudiced, to be able to dis-
cern truth, unless it come to them through the medium of
their own preconceptions. Such persons would refuse the
water of life, if not brought to them in their own pitcher. I
have now only to add, that a reimpression of this epistle be-
ing now called for, the first being entirely sold of, I have
carefully revised the whole, and have found little to alter;
and not one sentence either in the introductory matter, or in
the notes theinselves, that I can either in conscience or ho-
nour expunge.
A. C.

Millbrook, January 23, 1818.

THE ANCIENT ROMAN CALENDAR,

WITH THE FESTIVALS, ETC., OF THE PRESENT ROMISH CHURCH.

Instead of Chronological Tables, which the subject of this epistle neither admits nor requires, for it was probably all written in the course of a few days; I here insert the an cient Roman Calendar, regularlydistinguish ed into all its Calends, Nones, and Ides, with the different festivals observed in honour of their gods, goddesses, &c. in each month, and their principal astronomical notes. The mo dern Roman Calendar I have also introduced, with as many of the festivals, saints' days, &c. as the margin would receive. The reader will, no doubt, be struck with the conformity that subsists between ancient and modern Rome on this subject; on which, in this place, I shall make no farther remarks.

Cal. the 29th December; v. Cal the 28th, &c.
The Nones, which are four, follow the Ca
lends; as iv. Nonas Januarii, is Jan. 2,
Nonas Januarii, is Jan. 3, Pridie Nonas Jan
is Jan. 4, and Nonis Januarii, is Jan. 5. But
in March, May, July, and October, there are
Six Nones.

After these, the Ides in each month are
eight; as vili, Id. Jan. (Octavo Idus, or Idu-
um Januarit,) is January the 6th; vit. Id.
Jan. (Septimo Idus, or Iduum Januarii,) is
January the 7th; vi. Id. Jan. (Sexto Idus, or
Iduum Januarii,) is January the 8th; and so
on, till you come to the Ides themselves, Idi-
bus Januarii, being January 13th.

Observe-1. When the accusative case is This Calendar, which was made by Julius used, as Nonas, Idus, Calendas, the preposiCæsar, in the year of Rome 708, and before tion ante, before, which governs this case, is Christ 45, is still exceedingly useful, especial-understood; as tertio ante Calendas, the third ly for understanding the writers of antiquity, day before the Calends; quarto ante Calenparticularly those of the Latin Church; as das, the fourth day before the Calends, &c. well as for ascertaining the precise dates of Observe-2 that after the Ides which are on bulls, diplomas, and public acts in general. the 13th day of January, February, April, The Roman month, the reader will observe, June, August, September, November, and is divided into Calends, Nones, and Ides; all December; and on the 15th of March, May, of which are reckoned backward. The Ca- July, and October, which have six Nones lends are the first day of the month; as Ca-a-piece, the Calends following are to be reclendis Januariis, is the first day of January; koned to the next month.

lumn, the Calends, Nones, and Ides; and the slightest inspection will show how the days .of these denominations answer to the com mon days of the month in their regular order.

The Nundinal Letters I have not inserted, as they only refer to the custom of administering law, or trying causes, holding public assemblies, electing magistrates, &c. among the ancient Romans. I have thought it best to fill up that place with other matters belonging to this calendar, in which general readers might find more interest.

The Italic names, the reader will perceive, is the modern Roman Calendar, copiously filled with the days of real and reputed saints: these, however, are not the whole whose festivals are observed, and whose protection is implored in that church; as, upon an average, there are not fewer than five of these real or imaginary beings to every day of the year!

The Saints' days and Festivals of the Romish church are taken from Mr. Alban Butler's Laves of the Saints, (one of the best publications of this kind,) conferred with the Connaissance des Temps, edited by La Lande. The ancient Roman Calendar has been taken chiefly from Ainsworth; the two copies, one English, the other Lalin, in his sePridie Calendarum, or Calendas, is the 31st The first column in each month, contains cond volume, being collated together, and of December; iii. Cal. the 30th December; iv. | the regular days of that month; the next co-mutually corrected.

Terminus-St. Severianus, Pepin, Verda 22 VIII Cal-St. Margaret, Baradat.

23 VII Cal.-St. Serenus, Dositheus, Boisil

Anc. Roman Month, Festivals, &c., Saints' | 29|IV Cal-Equira, or horse-races in honour of | 21 IX Cal.-Terminalia, or festivals in honor of Days of the Romish or Latin Church. Mars in the Campus Martius.-St. FranJANUARY.-Under protection of Juno. cis, Gildas of Sales. 1 Cal. Januariis-Sacred to Janus, Juno, Jupiter, and Esculapius.-St. Fulgentius, Odilo or Olon.

2IV Nonas-An unfortunate day, termed by the Romans dies atra-Si. Macarius, Adelard.

3 III Nonas-Cancer sets. Birth-day of Cicero. -St. P. Balsam, Genevieve.

4 Pridie Nonas-Prayer for the safety of the prince.-St. Titus, Rigobert, Rumon

5 Nouis Jan.-Lyra rises.-St. Simeon, Sty lites, Syncletica.

6 VIII Idus-St. Melanius, Nilammon.

7 VII Idus-St. Lucian, Cedd, Aldric.

8 VI Idus-Sacrifice to Jupiter.-St. Apollina ris, Severinus, Pega

9V Idus-Agonalia, or festivals in honour of Agonius. The Dolphin rises.-St. Julian, Marciana, Felán.

10 IV Idus-Media hyems, or Mid-winter.St. William, Agatho, Marcian.

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30 III Cal-Sacred to peace. Fidicula sets.
31 Pridie Cal-Sacred to the Dii Penates, or
household gods.-St. Cyrus, Masdoc,
Galdus.

-St. Bothildes, Martina.

3

FEBRUARY.-Under protection of

Neptune.

24 VI Cal.-Rezifugium, or banishment of the
kings from Rome. The place of the Bis-
sextile.-St. Matthias the apostle.

25 V Cal.-St. Tarasius, Casarius.
26 IV Cal.-St. Alexander Victor, Porphyrius
27 III Cal.-Equiria, or horse-races in the Cam-
pus Martius.-St. Leander, Alnoth, Gal-
mier.

Cal. Februariis-Lucaria, festivals at Rome 28 Pridie Cal-The Tarquins overcome.-St.
celebrated in a large grove. The sacrifi-
cium bidens to Jupiter.-St. Ignatius,
Sigebert, Kinnic.

2V Nonas-St. Laurence, abp. Canterbury.
Nonas-Lyra, and the middle of the
Lion, set-St. Blase, Wereburge

4 Pridie Nonas-Dolphin sets.—St. Gilbert,
Isidore, Madan.

5 Nonis Feb.-Augustus surnamed Pater Pa-
triæ, or father of his country. Aquarius
rises-Martyrs of Japan, St. Vitus.
GVIII Idus-St. Dorothy, Vedast, Amandus.
7 VII Idus--St. Romuald, Theodorus.

8 VI Idus-St. Stephen. Cuthman, Paul.
9V us-Commencement of spring.-St.
Theliau, Anshert, Erhard.

10 IV Idus-St. Scholastica, William

11 III Idus-Arctophylax, or Arcturus rises.
Gentalic games.-St. Saturninus, Seve-]

rinus.

12 Pridie Idus-St. Benedict, Meletius, Eulalia.
13 Idibus Feb-Sacred to Faunus and Jupi-
ter, slaughter of the Fabii.-St. Cache-
rine, ModomnGc.

and Postverta.-St. Paul the first hermit. 16 XVII Cal.-Teinple of Concord raised by Ca millus-St. Honoratus, Pope Marcellus. XVI Cal-Sun in Aquarius.-St. Antony 15 patr. of the monks.

17

XV Cal.-St. Peter's chair at Rome.

13 XIV Cal-St. Canute, Henry, Wulstan 19 XIII Cal-St. Fabian, Sebastian, Fechin.

20 XII Cal.-St. Agnes, Epiphanius, Publius. 21 XI Cal-St. Vincent, Anastasius.

Proterius, Romanus,

MARCH-Under protection of Minerva.

1 Cal. Martiis-Matronalia, or festivals in ho-
nour of Mars. Ancilla in honour of the
same god.-St. David, Monan, AlberzUS.

2 VI Nonas-Eirth of Jupiter. Sacred to La-
cina. St. Charles the Good, Joaran.
3V Nonas-The second Fish sets.-St. Cune
gudes, Lematiffe.

4 IV Nonas-St. Casimir pr. of Poland,

Adrian.

5 III Nopas Arctophylax, or Arcturus sets. Vindemiator rises. Cancer rises.—St. Kiaran, Briaca, Roger.

6 Pridie Nonas-Feasts of Vesta. Julius Cæ
sar created high-priest.--St.Chrodegang,
Fridolin.

7Nonis Mar-Pegasus rises, Temple of Ve-
Jupiter.--St. Perpetua, Felicitas.
8Vill Idus-The Crown rises-St. Duthak,
Rosa, Senan.

9 VII Ius-Qiion rises. The Northern Fish
rises-St. Pecian, Gregory of Nyssa
VI Idus-40 martyrs of Sebaste.
Idus-St. Eulorius, Enzus

14 XVI Cal. Mar.-The Crow,Crater, and Ser-
pent, rise.-St. Valentine, Maro, Conran. 10
XV Cal-Lupercalia, or festivals in honour 11
of Pan.-St. Faustinus, Sigfri, Jovita. 12 IV Idus--Pope Gregory the Great.

16 XIV Cal-Sun in Pisces.-St. Onesimus, 13 III Idus-The opening of the Sea.-St. Ni
Juliana, Tanco.

cephorus, Gerald

17 XIII Cal-Quirinalia, or festivals in ho- 14 Pridie Idus-The second Equira, or horse

22 X Cal.-Lyra (the bright star in the Harp) 18 sets-St. Raymund, Ildefons us.

23

24

IX Cal.-Sementine Feriæ, or the feast of seed-time.-St. Timothy, Babylas, Cadoc. VIII Cal-St. Projectus, Apollo, Poppo. 25 VII Cal.-St. Polycarp, Paula, Conon. 26 VI Cal-Temple dedicated to Castor and Pollux.-St. J. Chrysostom, Marius. 28'V Cal.-St. Charlemagne, Cyril.

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nour of Romulus.-St. Flavian, Silvin,
Loman.

XII Cal-Fornacalla, or festivals in honour 15
of Fornax. Feralia, or festivals in ho-
nour of the dead.-St. Simeon, Leo,
Paregorius.

races upon the banks of the TiberQueen Mathildis, Lulin.

Idibus Mar-Sacred to Anna Perenna The Parricide. Scorpio rises-Pope Za chary, Mary.

16

19 XI Cal-Muta, or goddess of silence.-St.
Barbatus or Barbas.

XVII Cal. Ap.-Middle of the Scorpion sots
St. Julian, Finian the leper.

17

XVI Cal-Liberalia, or festivals In honour of Bacchus Agonalia in honour of Ago nius. Milvius rises-St. Patrick, Joseph of Arimathea.

20 X Cal.- Charistia, or festivals at Rome for
the distribution of mutual presents.-
St. Tyrannio, Eucherius.

1

Ancient Roman calendar.

JeXV Cal-Sun in Aries.-King Edward, | Anselm, Cyril

19 XIV Cal-Quinquatria, or festival in honour of Minerva. It continued for five days-St. Joseph Alcmund.

XIII Cal-St. Cuthbert, Wulfran. 21 XI Cal.-The first day of the Century. Pegasus sets.-The three Serapions, En de us

22XI Cal-St. Basil, Lea, Catharine. 2X Cal-Tubilustrium, or solenin procession with trumpets.-St. Victorian, Edelwald.

24 IX Cal-St. Irenæus bp. of Surmium, Simon.

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10 VI Blus-St. Antoninus, Achard, Isidore. 25 VIII Cal-Vernal equinox. Hilaria, or fes-11,V Idus-Orion sets. Unfortunate days to tivals in honour of the mother of the gods-Annunciation B. V. M.

26 VII CAL - St. Ludger, Braulio.

marry on.--St. Mammertus, Maieul 12 IV ldus-Sacred to Mars, the avenger at the Circus-St. Germanas, Rictrudes, Pancras. Commencement

VI Cal-Cesar made himself master of Alexandria-St. John the hermit, Ru13 pert or Robert.

29 V Cal.-Megalesia, or games in honour of Cybele.-Pope Sirtus III, K. Gontran.

29 IV Cal-St. Jonas, Armogastes, Mark

Idus-Piciades rise.

of summer.-St. John the Silent, Servarius.

14 Pridie Idns-Taurus rises. Sacred to Mercury.-St. Boniface, Pontius, Carthagh

30 III Cal-Sacred to Janus, Concord, Health, 15 Jibus Mai-Birth-day of Mercury. Fesand Peace.-St. Zosimus, Rieul or Regulus.

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tival of the merchants. Lyra rises. Sacred to Jupiter.-S. Dympna, Genebern. 16 XVII Cal Jun-st. Hebedjesus, Abdas,

Brendan

17 XVI Cal-St. Possidius, Mar, Maden. 18 XV Cal.-St. Eric, Potamon, Venantius. 19 XIV Cat-Sun in Gemini.-St. Dunstan, Pudentiana.

20 XIII Cal-St. Bernardin, Ethelbert.

22

Nonas-St. Agape, Ulpian, Nicetas. Pridie Nonas-Megalesia, or games in ho- 23 nour of Cybele for eight days.-St. Isidore, Plato.

XII Cal.--Agonalia, or festivals in honour of Agonius. Sacred to Vejovis, or Vejupiter. The dog rises.--St. Godric, Sospis or Hospitius.

XI Cal. St. Yvo, Bobo, Conall, Castus.

X Cal. Tubilustrum, or solemn procession with trumpets. The feria of Vulcan,-St. Julia Desiderius.

5 Nonis Apr.-St. Vincent, Ferrer, Tiger-241X Cal-St. Donatian, Rogatian, Vincent.

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Idus-Pope Leo the Great, Antipas. 12 Pridie Idus-The great mother brought to Rome.-St Zeno, Sabas, Victor, Julius. 13 latus Apr.-Sacred to Jupiter Victor, and Liberty-St. Hermenegild, Caradoc. 14 XVIII C. Mai.-St. Tiburtus, Carpus, Benezet.

15 XVII Cal-Fordicidia, or festivals wherein cows with calf were sacrificed - St. Munde, Basilissa, Ruadhan.

16 XVI Cal-Augustus saluted Emperor. Hyades set-Martyrs of Saragossa, Druon 17 XV Cal-Pope Anicetus, Simeon. 18 XIV Cal-Equiria, or horse races in the circus, and the burning of the foxesSt. Gallin, Laferian.

19 XIII Cal-Sun in Taurus.-Pope Leo IX., Elphege the Bald.

20 XII Cal-St. Agnes, Serf, James. 21 XI Cal-Palilia, or festivals in honour of Pales. Agonalia, or festival in honour of Agonius. Birth-day of Rome.--St. Anselin, Harluin, Bueno.

22 X Cal-St. Soto, Azades, Leonides. 23 IX Cal.-The first Vinalia, or festivals of Jupiter and Venus.-St. Gorge the Martyr, Ibar.

24 VIII Cal-Destruction of Ilium. -St. Fide tis, Mellitus, Bona.

25 VU Cal-Robigalia, or festivals in honour of Robigo or Rubigo. Mid-spring. Aries sets. The dog rises.-St. Mark the Evangelist, Ivia

25 VI Cal-The Goat rises.-St. Cletus, Rich arius, Radbert.

V Cal-Feria Latina, or Latin festivals in honour of Jupiter Latialis-St. Anthi mus, Zita, Anastasius.

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Etheldreda, Mary of Oignies.

24 VIII Cal.-Crowned ships carried banquets along the Tiber.-Nativity of John Bap

tist.

25 VII Cal-Summer Solstice.-St. Prosper Moloc, Adelbert.

26 VI Cal.-Sacred to Jupiter Stator, and Lai -St. Vigilius, Babolen, Anthelm.

27 V Cal.-Temple of Quirinus.—St. Ladislas I. king of Hungary.

28 IV Cal.-Pope Leo II., Basilides, 29 III Cal.-Sacred to Hercules and the Muses -St. Peter prince of the apostles.

30 Pridie Cal.-St. Paul the apostle,

QUINTILIS, or JULY-Under protection of Jupiter.

Cal. Jul.-Removing from one house to another.-St. Calais, Thierri, Leonorus. 2 VI Nonas-Visitation of blessed V. M. 3V Nonas-St. Guthagon, Bertran, Phocas. 4 IV Nonas-The Crown sets. The Hyades rise.-St. Ulric, Odo, Finbar, Bertha.

5 III Nonas--Populifugium, or day in which the people of Rome fled from their enemies.-St. Modena, Edana, Peter.

6 Pridie Nonas-Conflagration of the Capltol, in the time of Sylla.-St. Paladíus apos. of the Scots.

Nonis Jul-Caprotina, or festivals in honour of Juno Festival of the Maids.-Pope Benedict XI., Hedda.

8 VIII Ilus-Vitulatio, or wanton rejoicings. St. Elizabeth Q. of Portugal.

9 VII Idus-Cepheus rises.-St. Ephrem doctor of the church.

10 VI Idus The Etesian winds begin to blow. -The seven brothers, Rufina 11V Idus-Ludi Apollinares, or games in honour of Apollo about this time.-Pope Pius I, Drostan

12 IV Idus-Birth-day of Julius Cæsar. Festival of Female Fortune.-St. Nabor, FeKz, J. Gualbert.

13 m Idas-St. Anacletus, Turiaff, Eugenius 14 Pridle Idus-Sacred to Female Fortune.St. Bonaventure Dr. of the church. 15 Idibus Jul.-Festival of Castor and Pollux. -St Henry II. emperor, Swithin. 16 XVII Cal Aug.-The foremost dog rises.St. Eustathius, Elier the hermit. 17 XVI Cal-Aliensis dies atra, or anniversary of the unlucky battle of Allia.-Pope Leo IV., Marcellina.

18 XV Cal-St. Symphorosa, Bruno, Arnoul. 19 XIV Cal-Lucaria, games lasting four days. -St. Symmachus, Macrina. 20 XIII Cal-Plays for Cesar's victory. Sun in Leo.-St. Joseph Barsabas, Ceslas. 21 XII Cal.-St. Praxedes, Zoticus, Victor. XI Cal-St. Mary Magdalene, Dabius. 23 X Cal-The games of Neptune.-St. Apol linaris, Litorius.

5 Nonis Jun.-Sacred to Jupiter Sponsor 2 Temple of Faith-St. Midius, Dorotheus.

24 IX Cal-St. Lupus, Kinga, Declan 25 VIII Cal.-Furinalia, or festivals in honour of Furina. The Circensian games lasting six days.-St. James the Greater, Thea VII Cal.-In this month dogs were sacri ficed to the dog-star, according to Festus. -St. Anne, nother of B. V. M. 27VI Cal-Aquila rises-St. Pantaleon, Con 7 VII Idus-Piscatorian days in the Campus gall, Luican Martius. Temple of the Mind. Arctu-29 V Cal-Pope Innocent I., Pope Victor. rus sets-St. Colman, Meriadec, Robert. 29 IV Cal.--Neptunalia, or festivals in honour

6 VIII Idus--Temple of Vesta.--St. Philip the deacon, Gudirall.

8 VI Idus-Altar of Jupiter Pistor.-St. Clou, William abp of York.

9V Idus-Matralia, or festival in honour of Matuta, or Ino. Dolphin rises.-St. Rich-30 ard. Pelagia, Vincent.

10 IV Idus-Sacred to Powerful Fortune. Temple of Concord.-St. Margaret queen of Scotland

11 III Idus-Sacred to Mother Matuta.-St. Barnabas the apostle.

12 Pridie Idus-Invincible Jupiter. Quinquatria minuscula, or the minor festivals in honour of Minerva-St. Eskill, Onu phrius, Ternan.

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19 XIII Cal.-Summanalia, or festivals in honour of Pluto. Ophiuchus rises.-St. 1 Cal. Mai.-To the good goddess. Altar Gervasius, Die bp. of Nevers. raised to Lares. Games of Flora for three 20 XII Cal-St. Gobain, Idaberga, Bain. days Capella rises.-St. Philip and 21 XI Cal-St. Aloysius, Eusebius, Meen James, Apostles. 22 X Cal.-Flaminíus conquered by the Carthagenians.- St. Alban, protomart. of Britain.

VI Nonas-Hyades 1150. The Compitalia. St Athanasius.

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SEXTILIS, or AUGUST.-Under protection of Ceres.

1 Cal. Aug.-Temple of Mars consecrated. Sacred to Hope.-The Seven Maccabees.

2 IV Nonas-Feria upon account of Cæsar's subduing Spain.-St. Etheldritha, Pope Stephen.

3III Nonas-Invention of St. Stephen's relics 4 Pridie Nonas-The middle of Leo rises.St. Dominic, Luanus.

5 Nonis Aug.-Sacred to Health, on the Quirinal mount.-St. Oswald, Memmius, Afra.

6 VIII Idus-Sacred to Hope.-Transfiguration of our Lord.

7 VII Idus-Middle of Aquarius sets.-St. Cajetan, Donatus.

8 VI Idus-Sacred to Solf Indigeti on the Quirinal mount-St. Cyriacus, Hormisdas, Largus.

9 V Idus-St. Romanus, Nathy or David. 10 IV Idus-Altars of Ops and Ceres in the Jugarian street-St. Deusdedit, Blaan, Laurence.

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Laurence abp of Dublin.

15 XVII Cal.-Plebeian games in the circus, 16 XVI Cal.-The end of seed-time for cornaccording to Suetonius, for three days.St. Leopold, Maclou, Eugenius. St. Edmund, Eucherius.

17 XV Cal.-St. Gregory, Thaumaturgus, Agnan.

18 XIV Cal-The Mercatus for three days. Sun in Sagittarius.-St. Alpheus, Odo, Hilda

22X Cal.-St. Cecily, Appia, Philemon Liberalia. Lepus sets.-Presentation of B. V. M. 23 IX Cal.-Pope Clement the martyr. 24 VIII Cal.-Brumalia, or festivals in honour 25 VII Cal.-St. Catharine, Erasmus. of Bacchus for the space of thirty days.-. St. John of the Cross, Flora. 26 VI Cal.-St. Nicon, Conrad, Gazzolini, 27 V Cal.-In this month sacrifices were made to the infernal gods for the Gauls and 28 IV Cal.-St. Stephen the younger. Greeks dug from under the Boarian fo rum, according to Plutarch-St. Virgil of Ireland, Marimus. 29 III Cal.-St. Saturnius, Radbod 30 Pridie Cal.-St. Andrew the apostle, Narses, Sapor.

24 VIII Cal.-The autumnal equinox.-St. Germer, Rusticus, Conald.

25 VII Cal-Sacred to Venus, Saturn, and Mania.-St. Barr or Finbarr, Aunire. 26 VI Cal.-St. Nilus the younger, Justina. 27 V Cal.-Sacred to returning Fortune, and Venus the mother.-St. Cosmas, Elzear, Damian.

26 VII Cal.-St. Stephen the first martyr. 27 VI Cal.-Dolphin rises.-St. John the apos tle, T. Grapt.

ter solstice.-Christmas day, Eugenia Anastasia.

28 V Cal-Sacred to Phoebus for three days -The holy Innocents, Orsisius.

30 III Cal-Canicula sets-St. Sabinus, Arag sia, Maximus.

29 IV Cal.-Aquila sets-St. Thomas abp. ef Canterbury.

31 Pridie Cal-Pope Sylvester, Columbe.

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Introduction

1. CORINTHIANS.

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OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROGRESSIVE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ROMAN CALENDAR:
From the Days of Romulus, about 730 Years before Christ, to the present Time.

The Roman Calendar, before the time of Julius Caesar, was very defective: in the reign of Romulus, the first king of Rome, the science of astronomy was so little understood in Italy, that the calendar was made to consist of ten months, and the year of only 304 dars The names of the ten months were in order as follows:-March, April, May, June, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, No vember, December. Besides the 304 days, Romulus is said to have intercalated days without name, to make up the number of 360 but whether this was the case, or in what way these days were intercalated, cannot be determined; as history, with reference The to this point, is extremely obscure. months of March, May, Quintilis, and Octoper, contained 31 days each; and the other six, only 30 days each; as may be seen in the following table, which exhibits the state of the Roman Calendar about 730 years previeasly to the Incarnation: JUNE QUINT. MAR Calent Calend. Calend. Calend. Calend.

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In the reign of Numa Pompilius, the second in Sosigenes assigning precisely 365 days six king of the Romans, the Calendar was very hours, for the sun's passage through the much improved. This monarch, by means of twelve signs of the zodiac; instead of 365 the instructions he received from Pythagoras, days, five hours, and 48 minutes, and 48 sethe prince of the Italian Philosophers, adopted conds, as ascertained by the more perfect obvery nearly the same kind of year which the servations of modern astronomers. The error Greeks then used; with this principal excep- of Sosigenes, of about eleven minutes in the tion, that he assigned to every one of his years length of the solar year, amounts to a whole 365 days, which is one day more than the day in 144 years, insomuch that from the The reformation of the Calendar Gregory XIII., ten days too many had crept Grecian and Rabbinical years usually con- council of Nice, in A. D, 325, to the time of tained. of Romulus, consisted in taking away one into the Calendar, the vernal equinox which, day from April, June, Sextilis, September, in 325, was fixed on the 21st of March, hap To remedy this defect, Pope Gregory orderNovember, and December; (the day after the pening in 1582, on the 11th, though the CalenIdes of these months, being named the xviith dar constantly placed it on the 21st. before the Calends of the ensuing one,) and then adding these six days to the 51 which ed that ten days should be suppressed in the the year of Romulus wanted, to make up his almanac of 1582, the 5th of October being deown of 355 days: with these 57 days he made nominated the 15th, as in these days fewer two new months, viz. January and February, festivals occurred than in any other ten conthe former of which was the first, and the secutive days in the year; and to prevent the other the last month of his year; assigning to recurrence of this error for the future, it was di the former 29 and to the latter 28 days. In rected by a public bull, that every three centu order to make his year equal to that which rial years out of four, after A. D. 1600, (which the Greeks used in their Olympiads, Numa is in the Julian calendar are leap-years,) should said to have intercalated 82 days in every eight be only common years of 365 days each. Thus years, in the following manner-At the end 1700, 1800, and 1900, are styled common years, of the first two years, an intercalation of 22 2000 a bissextile year, 2100, 2200, and 2300, By this last correction of the Calendar, the days; at the end of the next two, an interca-common years, 2400 a bissextile, &c. &c. lation of 23 days; at the third two, an interçalation of 22 days; and at the end of the last Gregorian year is so nearly commensurate two, an intercalation of the remaining 15 days. with the revolution of the earth round the The Calendar of Numa Pompilius, (with sun, that an error of a day cannot be made in the slight variation in it at the time of the De- less than 3,600 years. If the intercalations be cemviri, about 452, B. C. which consisted in made according to the calculations of the late constituting February the second instead of M. de la Lande, and other eminent astrono the last month,) continued in use among the mers of the last and present centuries, an erRomans till the time of Julius Caesar, who, ror of a day need not be committed in less perceiving the great inconveniences that re- than a million of years! sulted from not making the civil year equal In length to the solar revolution through the 12 signs of the zodiac, employed Sosigenes of Alexandria, (esteemed the greatest astrono mer of his time,) to reform the Calendar in such a way that the seasons of the year might perpetually correspond to the same months. As, according to the calculations of Sosigenes, the solar ecliptical revolution took up about 365 days six hours, it was found necessary to lengthen the civil year at least ten days, making it to consist of 365 days, instead of 355; "The constitution of Pope Gregory XIII. for and to make a proper compensation for the six hours which the solar year exceeds 365 days, every fourth year was proposed to be the approval and introduction of the new an intercalary one containing 366 days. Ju- Calendar for the use of the Romish church lius Cæsar, by public edict, accordingly order-universally; in which, among many other ed these corrections to be made; and the Ca- things, he decrees and commands, that ten lendar, thus corrected, is the same as that days be struck off from the month of October already given in the preceding table, with the of this present year 1582: namely, from the festivals, &c. of the ancient Romans. In con- third of the Nodes, (Oct. 5) to the day before sequence of the ignorance of the priests, a the Ides (Oct. 14) both inclusive; and that considerable error was committed in the first the day which follows the festival of St. 36 years after the Julian reformation of the Francis, usually celebrated as the ivth of the Calendar; for the priests imagined that the Nones, should be called the Ides of October. fourth year in which the intercalation should Given at Tusculum, in the year of the Incar be made was to be computed from that in nation of our Lord, 1582, on the sixth of the which the preceding intercalation took place, Calends of March, (Feb. 24,) and in the tenth by which means they left only two common year of his Pontificate." See Suppl. au Corps This alteration of the Calendar was not years instead of three between the two inter- Diplomatique, Tome II. Part I. pp. 187, 188. calary ones. Consequently, twelve days, instead of nine, were intercalated in 36 years, adopted by the British till 1752, in which year, an error too considerable to escape the notice the day after the second of September was of the Augustan age: and, accordingly, the called Sept. 14. All the nations of Europe emperor directed that no intercalation should have adopted this mode of reckoning except be made for the first twelve years, that the the Russians, who follow the Julian account three superfluous days might be gradually introduced among them by Peter the Great, dropped; and that the intercalations should instead of the Constantinopolitan era by be afterward regulated in such a manner that which their chronology had been previously The commentator should make an apology three common years should continually in-regulated. tervene. This last alteration of the Calendar continued without any interruption till the to his readers for the introduction of the prepontificate of Gregory XIII. in the latter part ceding tables and calculations: as having of the 16th century, when he gave orders apparently, but little relation to the subject vious utility of what is here inserted, will that the Roman Calendar should be again re- the Epistle to the Romans: but the very obformed. The necessity of this reformation originated more than plead his excuse.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE

FIRST EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS.

In my preface to the Epistle to the Romans, I have made se veral extracts from Dr. Paley's Hora Paulina, in which, from internal evidence, he demonstrates the authenticity of that epistle. His observations on the first Epistle to the Corinthians, are distinguished by the same profound learning and depth of thought: and as, in an age in which scepticism has had an unbridled range, it may be of great consequence to a sincere inquirer after truth, to have all his doubts re

moved relative to the authenticity of the epistle in question;
and as Dr. Paley's observations cast considerable light on
several passages in the work; I take the liberty to introduce
them, as something should be said on the subject; and I do
introduce the word section for number.
not pretend to have any thing equal to what is here prepared
to my hands. I have scarcely made any other change than to

SECTION I-Before we proceed to compare this epistle with
95

L

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