The Cambridge History of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790, edited by Richard Gray
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Africa were a period of transition, with the trade in slaves and firearms on the Atlantic coast laying some of the foundations for European colonialism. But for most of the continent, external forces were still of marginal significance. African initiative remained supreme and produced a rich variety of political, social and intellectual innovations. In eight regional chapters the contributors to this volume, all established experts in their field, bring together for the first time these developments as they affected the whole of Africa. A concluding chapter surveys Africa in Europe and the Americas during this period.
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The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Africa in Europe and the Americas page 578 9 Africa in Europe and the Americas
Egypt the Funj and Darfur
The central Sahara and Sudan
from the Maghrib to
The Guinea coast
The Guinea Coast
Central Africa from Cameroun to the Zambezi
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African Aloma already appear Arab army Asante attempt authority became began Bornu Bulala called capital carried central centre chiefs coast communities continued culture Darfur defeated direct dominated Dutch dynasty early east eastern economic effective Egypt eighteenth century empire established European expansion followed force Fulani Futa gold groups half hand House important increased independent influence Islam killed king kingdom known Kongo land later Lunda maintained major military Moroccan Muslim Niger nineteenth century northern origin Ottoman pasha perhaps period political population Portuguese position principal probably production raids region relations religious remained river routes royal rulers ruling seems sent settled seventeenth century sixteenth century slave trade slaves social society southern success Sudan sultan territory Timbuktu town trade traditions tribute Tuareg upper villages western