Economic Evaluation of Housing Subsidy Systems: A Methodology with Application to Morocco
World Bank Publications, 2005 - 56 pages
Most countries do not use one single type of housing subsidy but combine many of them. Le Blanc provides operational criteria that allow evaluation of systems of housing subsidies, both at the individual program level and at the aggregate (country) level. He examines the public finance assessment criteria used by different authors to analyze subsidy programs and confront them systematically. Le Blanc ends up with a "map" of criteria, which covers the range of topics interesting to policymakers. For each criterion, he tries to provide empirical measures that can be retrieved from existing programs. He then provides an aggregation method allowing a synthesis of diagnoses about the "quality" of the housing subsidies system at the country level. The aggregation technique offers a simple way to visualize the main features of a subsidy system, as well as the effects on the system of reforms or improvements of particular programs. The author applies the methodology to the system prevailing in Morocco in 1995 and 2004. The analysis shows that the most visible subsidies might not have been the most inefficient, nor the most resource consuming for the state. Examination of policy changes since 1995 shows that while the most visible subsidies received nearly all the government's attention, large invisible subsidies remain at the heart of Morocco's housing policy. The framework used here is very general and can be used to compare the Moroccan system with those of similar countries. This paper--a product of the Urban Unit, Transport and Urban Development Department--is part of a larger effort in the department to provide evaluation frameworks to better understand housing markets in developing countries.
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administrative simplicity aggregate level allocation amounted to MDH Article 19 assess beneficiaries benefit Bidonvilles capital gains cost coverage credit risk criterion deciles Deduction of mortgage developing countries distribution economic effects efficiency estimated evaluation example Exemption of VAT Expenditures on Housing fiscal expenditure flexibility FOGARIM formal housing framework households housing construction housing finance housing market housing production housing sector housing subsidy programs housing subsidy system housing units incentives income tax interest rate subsidies intervention Land subsidies loans million Ministry of Housing Morocco in 1995 Mortgage Guarantee Funds mortgage interests partial equilibrium provisions public finance criteria public land redistribution régime rent control rental result section 8 housing self-construction slum upgrading social housing social units subsidies on mortgages sustainability Tax base tax expenditure tax incidence tax rate taxable income Taxe Urbaine Total transparency type of subsidy Urban Urban Economics Vertical equity visibility World Bank